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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 18-32. http://doi.org/10.31586/RemoteSensing.0301.04
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    Abstract
    Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) is unique in East Africa that provides mixed land use activities for the community. The main land uses in LGCA are livestock keeping, wildlife conservation, small scale agriculture, tourism and hunting of wild animals. For decades, Maasai pastoralists coexisted with LGCA but restricted to hunt,
    [...] Read more.
    Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) is unique in East Africa that provides mixed land use activities for the community. The main land uses in LGCA are livestock keeping, wildlife conservation, small scale agriculture, tourism and hunting of wild animals. For decades, Maasai pastoralists coexisted with LGCA but restricted to hunt, set snares and conducting large scale farming. From the year 2000 expansion of agricultural activities have been noted which has escalated the decline of wildlife. I this study the land use/cover change occurred in LGCA for the period of 20 years have been determined and assessed. Supervised classification method was used whereby six classes namely forest, bare land, sand, water, grass land and agriculture were categorized. The results show that from 1996 to 2016 there is a major land cover change on forest, agriculture, bare land, grassland, water bodies and sand by 19.63%, 8.74%, 15.32%, 50.08%, 4.51 %and 1.72%, respectively. Specifically, forest cover is decreasing at 1467.81 ha per year while agriculture is increasing at the rate of 1,467 ha per year. The study concluded that clearing of forest and large scale agriculture has destroyed vegetation cover threatening the existence of wildlife which to a great extent requires immediate measures to counterbalance this effect.  Full article
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    Niboye, E, P.(2010) Vegetation Cover Changes in Ngorongoro Conservation Area from 1975 to 2000; The Open Geography Journal, 2010, 3, 15-27
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    Nelson, F. 2003. Community-based Tourism in Northern Tanzania: Increasing Opportunities, Escalating Conflicts and an Uncertain Future.
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    Sachedina and Nelson 2010. Tourism and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
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    TNRF (2010).Integrating Pastoralist Livelihoods and Wildlife Conservation? Options for Land Use and Conflict Resolution in Loliondo Division, Ngorongoro District -Tanzania.
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    UNEP, (2008). Serengeti National Park. http://www.unepwcmc.org/sites.html
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    Masengeri R. 2012. Framing of Resource use Conflicts in Loliondo Game Controled Area, Tanzania. Unpublished MSc. Report.
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    Herlocker D. 1999. Rangeland resources in East Africa and their ecology and development. Nairobi: GTZ report 1999.
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    Jensen J. R., 2003. Introductory to Digital Image Processing, a Remote Sensing Perspective. 3rd Edition, pp505-508.
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    Congalton et al., (1983). Assessing landsat classification accuracy using descrete multivariate statistical techniques. Photogrammetry Engineering and Remote Sensing Vol.49, No. 12 pp 1671-1678
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    Opeyemi Z. A., 2006. Change Detection in Land Use and Land Cover Using Remote ensing Data and GIS. A Case Study of Ilorin and its Environs in Kwara State Nigeria. MSc. Report 44 pages https://www.geospatialworld.net/wp-content/.../04/OpeyemiZubair_ThesisDOC.doc
  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 33-51. http://doi.org/10.31586/Geosciences.0301.05
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    Abstract
    The magnetotelluric method has been used in this work to compare the nature of the sedimentary-metamorphic contacts of the Douala and Kribi-Campo sub-basins in Cameroon. The results show that the sedimentary-metamorphic contact zones for the two sub-basins, marked by a subsidence of the low resistivity materials on the sedimentary formations
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    The magnetotelluric method has been used in this work to compare the nature of the sedimentary-metamorphic contacts of the Douala and Kribi-Campo sub-basins in Cameroon. The results show that the sedimentary-metamorphic contact zones for the two sub-basins, marked by a subsidence of the low resistivity materials on the sedimentary formations and uplift of the high resistivity materials characterized by intrusive bodies of higher values of resistivity on the metamorphic formations, are structurally similar,. However, the very low values of resistivity of rocks in the Douala sub-basin is suggestive of high porosity, permeability and high level of saline ions dissociation leading to high conductivity. These rocks should be of unconsolidated sediments for the sedimentary formation and gneiss for the metamorphic formation. On the contrary, the very high values of resistivity for rocks in the Kribi-Campo sub-basin indicate the absence of free mobile electrons and ions and low porosity, permeability and non-conductivity. The sedimentary formation of this sub-basin should be composed of limestone and conglomerates rocks with some gneissic and unconsolidated granitic materials. The rocks in the metamorphic formation should be completely granitic in nature. The shallow depth of penetration of only 4 km of telluric current in the Douala sub-basin is enough evidence that the tectonic events responsible for the emplacement of this contact zone were limited to the earth crust. On the other hand, in the Kribi-Campo sub-basin the tectonic events should have originated from within the earth mantle as the depth of penetration of telluric current attains 150 km.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 52-59. http://doi.org/10.31586/Epidemiology.0301.05
    243 Views 180 Downloads 1 Shares PDF Full-text (2.334 MB) PDF Full-text (2.334 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected.
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    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a commercially available qualitative immunoassay for the detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen of Mycobacteria in human urine by comparing its sensitivity and specificity in TB patients with the AFB and GeneXpert in individuals with presumptive tuberculosis cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study that consecutively enrolled 53 eligible TB adults? patients attending TB Centre, Mangu, Plateau State from February to March 2017. We applied the LAM test on urine collected as a spot and early morning sample. Diagnostic accuracy was analyzed for a microbiological TB reference standard based on Gene Xpert MTB/RIF results and for a composite reference standard including clinical data. Performance of sputum smear microscopy (AFB) was included for comparison. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 41.0?17.0 years.) The male proportion was 36(68.0%) and female was 17(32.0%). The patients with HIV-1 Co-infection were 9(23.8%). Of the 53 patients, the positive testing rate of TB using LAM test was 11 (20.8 %). The proportion of those who tested positive using Gene Xpert was 9(17.0%) and AFB was 33(62.2%), and the sensitivity and specificity were 33.3% and 93.2%, respectively. Negative and positive predictive values were 87.23% and 50.0%, diagnostic accuracy was 83.02%. Conclusion: The study showed great sensitivity of urine LAM test suggesting it could be useful as point of care diagnostic test for presumptive TB cases. Its high negative predictive value suggests a role in screening out uninfected patients; though GeneXpert had superior sensitivity, but the ease of the LAM test holds operational advantage as a screening method, however larger studies are needed to further determine diagnostic accuracy.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 60-68. http://doi.org/10.31586/Cancer.0302.01
    171 Views 123 Downloads 3 Shares PDF Full-text (3.365 MB) PDF Full-text (3.351 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab in combination with radiochemotherapy as the primary treatment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma from September 2012 to December 2016. 188 newly diagnosed patients with stage III?IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma
    [...] Read more.
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab in combination with radiochemotherapy as the primary treatment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma from September 2012 to December 2016. 188 newly diagnosed patients with stage III?IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with at least 1-2 cycles of chemotherapy concurrently with planned IMRT. 88 patients received nimotuzumab 200 mg/week. Acute and late radiation-related toxicities were graded according to the Acute and Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Results: After 3 months of treatment, the complete response rates of nasopharyngeal tumors in the study group and the control group were 78.4% and 65.5%, respectively (?2=4.070, P=0.044). The total complete response rates of cervical lymph nodes in the study group and the control group were 80.7% and 67.6% respectively (?2=4.022, P=0.045).The median cycle for nimotuzumab addition was 6.3 weeks. With a median follow-up of 36.3 months (range, 12?72 months), the estimated 3-year progression failure-free survival and overall survival rates for the study group and the control group were 85.24% vs 81.97% and 96.67% vs 90.0%, respectively. The 3-year local recurrence-free survival rates for the study group and the control group were 96.67% vs 83.60%, respectively (P=0.047). Grade 3 radiation-induced mucositis accounted for 36.4% of treated patients. No skin rash and infusion reaction were observed, distinctly from what is reported in control patients. Conclusion: Nimotuzumab plus chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma showed promising outcomes in terms of locoregional control, without increasing the incidence of radiation-related toxicities for patients.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 69-74. http://doi.org/10.31586/Physiology.0302.02
    740 Views 174 Downloads 3 Shares PDF Full-text (2.323 MB) PDF Full-text (2.323 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Heat stress can affect reproduction potential as an environmental factor. This Study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary extract on spermatogenesis and sexual hormones of laboratory mice under heat stress. 50 male mature mice were examined in five groups including a control group and four experimental groups
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    Heat stress can affect reproduction potential as an environmental factor. This Study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary extract on spermatogenesis and sexual hormones of laboratory mice under heat stress. 50 male mature mice were examined in five groups including a control group and four experimental groups [0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of rosemary extract]. Samples were kept under heat stress four hours a day and received the extract doses for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the amount of testosterone, LH, and FSH hormones plus the number of spermatogenic cells were measured. Obtained data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Heat stress in zero doses reduced testosterone, LH, and FSH significantly whereas rosemary extract increased testosterone and LH in 200 and 400 doses and FSH in 100,200, and 400 doses. Primary spermatocytes were decreased in zero doses significantly but increased significantly in other experimental groups [p<0.05]. In general, Heat stress reduces male sex hormones and spermatogenic cells but rosemary extract compensated this reduction dose-dependently and improved sexual potential under heat stress.  Full article
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    Figure 1 of 4

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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 82-89. http://doi.org/10.31586/AnalyticalChemistry.0302.04
    253 Views 215 Downloads PDF Full-text (781.710 KB) PDF Full-text (2.530 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    In this research, a new nano graphene oxide based solid phase extraction followed by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction was applied as simple, rapid and sensitive determination of trace amounts of Propranolol(PRO) in urine samples with HPLC-UVD. Several factors influencing the extraction of PRO, such as pH, adsorbent amounts, extraction time, organic
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    In this research, a new nano graphene oxide based solid phase extraction followed by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction was applied as simple, rapid and sensitive determination of trace amounts of Propranolol(PRO) in urine samples with HPLC-UVD. Several factors influencing the extraction of PRO, such as pH, adsorbent amounts, extraction time, organic solvent type and the composition of solvent and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under optimum condition, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the proposed method were 2ng/mL?1 and 6.6ng/mL, respectively. Good linear behaviour over the investigated concentration ranges (2-2000ng/mL-1) and good correlation coefficient of 0.9901(r2) were obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) based on three determinations at 2, 20, 200ng/ml-1 levels of PRO was less than 9.7 %. The findings of the present study may provide clinical and diagnostic laboratories.  Full article
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    Figure 1 of 6

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    M. Valc?rcel, S. C?rdenas, B.M. Simonet, Y. Moliner-Mart?nez, R. Lucena, Carbon nanostructures as sorbent materials in analytical processes, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 27 (2008) 34?43.
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 90-95. http://doi.org/10.31586/Biology.0302.05
    148 Views 262 Downloads PDF Full-text (2.105 MB) PDF Full-text (2.015 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress affecting microorganism growth and productivity. To survive these stresses most organisms have to stress-adaptation mechanisms. It's one of these things proline. We did not find any similar studies with P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis in our studies. The highest value for proline
    [...] Read more.
    Salinity is one of the important abiotic stress affecting microorganism growth and productivity. To survive these stresses most organisms have to stress-adaptation mechanisms. It's one of these things proline. We did not find any similar studies with P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis in our studies. The highest value for proline production at 30 ?C 100 rpm was in E. faecalis 11,074 U/ml and in E. coli 6,833 U/ml. The highest proline production in LB medium containing 37 ?C 100 rpm KCl was found to be in E. faecalis 14,604 U/ml and in E. coli 6,557 U/ml. However, there are studies with E. coli. This experiment revealed that the extracellular proline concentration is proportionally linked to the KCl stress. We should first mention that studies similar to those we were less common in the literature. We did not find any similar studies with P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis in our studies.  Full article
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    Figure 1 of 6

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  • Open Access Case Report
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 96-103. http://doi.org/10.31586/Surgery.0302.06
    62 Views 124 Downloads PDF Full-text (2.387 MB) PDF Full-text (2.362 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Primary cardiac tumors are rare with an incidence ranging from 0.001% to 0.03% in autopsy series. The prognosis of cardiac sarcomas remains poor because it proliferates rapidly, and distant metastases are often found at diagnosis. We present a case of liposarcoma in the atrium of the heart as case report
    [...] Read more.
    Primary cardiac tumors are rare with an incidence ranging from 0.001% to 0.03% in autopsy series. The prognosis of cardiac sarcomas remains poor because it proliferates rapidly, and distant metastases are often found at diagnosis. We present a case of liposarcoma in the atrium of the heart as case report and same time,we do a literature review about it.Case Report: We present the case of a 30-year-old female with a significant tumor of cardiac liposarcoma, with chief complaint of dyspnea, tachycardia and heart failure even angina pectoris.Conclusion: The diagnostician?s differential diagnosis must be broad when encountering common chief complaints, such as tachycardia, heart failure and angina pectoris.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 2 of 3

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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2015, 2(1), 21-38. http://doi.org/10.31586/AgriculturalEconomics.0201.04
    856 Views 143 Downloads PDF Full-text (2.354 MB) PDF Full-text (2.354 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Dispite intensive multidiciplinary research the overall impact of the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima nuclear accident on Japanese agri-food sector is far from being completely evalusated. That is a concequence of the scale of triple disaster and affected agents, the effects? multiplicities, spillovers, and long time horizon, the lack
    [...] Read more.
    Dispite intensive multidiciplinary research the overall impact of the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima nuclear accident on Japanese agri-food sector is far from being completely evalusated. That is a concequence of the scale of triple disaster and affected agents, the effects? multiplicities, spillovers, and long time horizon, the lack of ?full? information and models of analysis, on-going challenges with post disaster recovery and reconstruction, etc. This paper presents research findings on multiple impacts of the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami on Japanases agriculture and food sector. First, disaster events and their effects is outlined; next the impacts on agri-food organizations, products, markets and consumers are evaluated; finally, specific and overall short-term and long-term impacts on agriculture, food industries and food consumption in different parts of the country is assessed. The study is based on a wide range of information from diverse organizations as well as original experts assessments of leading experts in the area. Agriculture, food industry and food consumption have been among the worst hit by the disasters areas. There is a great variation of the specific and combined impacts of disasters on different type of farming and business enterprises, particular agents, individual sub-sectors, and specific locations. Disasters have also had positive impacts on the development of certain sectors in the most affected regions and some sectors in other parts of the country as post disaster reconstruction have induced considerable policies and institutional modernization in agri-food and other sectors, food safety information and inspection, technological and product innovation, jobs creation and investment, farmlands consolidation and enhancement, infrastructural amelioration, organizational restructuring, etc. More future studies are necessary to evaluate and update the ?known? agricultural and food impacts as further in depth ?micro? studies are needed to fully understand the impacts of the disasters in each location and community, type of farms and productions, and component of agri-food chain.  Full article
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    Figure 12 of 9

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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2015, 2(1), 39-45. http://doi.org/10.31586/Surgery.0201.05
    941 Views 188 Downloads PDF Full-text (584.953 KB) PDF Full-text (584.953 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between operative approach, operative time, and SSI rate. Methods: Inpatient database review identified patients undergoing 5 common procedures from 1/2010-12/2011. Patients were stratified into laparoscopic or open approaches. The main outcome measure was the relationship between operative time and SSI by approach. Results: 226,006 patients
    [...] Read more.
    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between operative approach, operative time, and SSI rate. Methods: Inpatient database review identified patients undergoing 5 common procedures from 1/2010-12/2011. Patients were stratified into laparoscopic or open approaches. The main outcome measure was the relationship between operative time and SSI by approach. Results: 226,006 patients were evaluated- 28.2% open and 71.8% laparoscopic. Mean overall operative time was significantly shorter laparoscopically (p<0.001). Laparoscopy was associated with significantly lower costs and shorter length of stay (LOS) overall and for each procedure(p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis found SSI increased directly with operative time: for every 30-minute increase, SSI risk increased by 12%. Operative approach was an independent risk factor for SSI: open surgery increased SSI risk by 78%. A direct relationship between open procedures, operative time, and SSI risk was found. Conclusions: Laparoscopy has overall shorter operative time and improved outcomes in SSI rate, LOS, and total costs for common surgical procedures. As operative time and approach were independent risk factors for SSI, the use of laparoscopy and operative time are valuable quality measures.  Full article
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