Research Article | Open Access | 10.31586/InfectiousDiseases.0402.05
Anemia and Associated Risk Factors among People Living with Hiv in Dodoma Region, Central Tanzania
Received November 17, 2018
Revised January 5, 2019
Accepted January 21, 2019
Published February 1, 2019
AbstractBackground: Anemia is the most frequent hematologic abnormality of HIV disease and one of the most common manifestations of nutritional deficiency disorders in the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, about 70% of the world’s people living with HIV/AIDS, where the prevalence of anemia is higher than in developed countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among people living with HIV at Dodoma regional hospital during 2013-2014. Methodology: A retrospective cross-section study conducted among PLWHIV at Dodoma Regional Hospital between 2015 and 2016. A total of 869 PLWHIV were enrolled. Data extraction sheet were used to collect Socio- demographics, immune-hematological data and ARV status from existing patient’s files (CTC 2 card). Double entry of data in Microsoft excel were done and transferred for analyzing using SPSS v.16. Results: Majority of them were females 648(74.6%)and 508(58.2%) were between 19-45years with mean age of 38.84(±14.09). 824(94. 8%) were on ARV; where 640(73.6%) are from urban. The overall prevalence of anaemia among PLHIV was 59.5% of which 56.6% of these were on ARV, and 2.9% were not on ARV. Age, sex and CD4+ counts < 200cell/µl were among factors associated with anemia among PLWHIV. Conclusion: Moderate anaemia was common in the study population. Screening and management of anemia along with the proper use Anti-retroviral therapy may decrease risk of anemia and the effect ARV on red blood cells. Haemoglobin measurements should be taken before initiation of ARV and routinely followed among ARV users.
Tesfaye Z and Enawgaw B (2014) Prevalence of anemia before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV positive patients in Northwest Ethiopia : a retrospective study. 7(1): 1-5.
Johannessen A, Naman E, Ngowi BJ, Sandvik L, Matee MI, Aglen HE, Gundersen SG and Bruun JN (2008) Predictors of mortality in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in a rural hospital in Tanzania. 10: 1-10.
Alem M, Kena T, Baye N, Ahmed R and Tilahun S (2013) Patients at the Anti-Retroviral Therapy Clinic at the University of Gondar. 2(3).
Ferede G and Wondimeneh Y (2013) Prevalence and related factors of anemia in HAART-naive HIV positive patients at Gondar University Hospital , Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Blood Disorders. BMC Blood Disorders 13(1): 1. Available at: BMC Blood Disorders.
Santiago-rodríguez EJ, Mayor AM, Fernández-santos DM, Ruiz-candelaria Y and Hunter-mellado RF (2014) Anemia in a cohort of HIV-infected Hispanics : prevalence , associated factors and impact on one-year mortality. 1-8.
Martin C, Poudel-tandukar K and Poudel KC (2014) HIV Symptom Burden and Anemia among HIV-Positive Individuals : Cross-Sectional Results of a Community-Based Positive Living with HIV ( POLH ) Study in Nepal. 1-16.
Brien MEO, Kupka R, Msamanga GI, Saathoff E, Hunter DJ and Fawzi WW (2005) Anemia Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality and Immunologic Progression of Disease Among Women With HIV in Tanzania. 40(2): 219-225.
Belperio PS and Rhew DC (2004) Prevalence and Outcomes of Anemia in Individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus : A Systematic Review of the Literature. 27-43.
Volberding PA, Levine AM, Dieterich D, Mildvan D, Mitsuyasu R, Saag M and Working HI V (2004) Anemia in HIV Infection : Clinical Impact and Evidence-Based Management Strategies. 94121.
Mata-marín JA, Gaytán-martínez JE, Martínez-martínez RE, Arroyo-anduiza CI, Fuentes-allen JL and Casarrubias-ramirez M (2010) Risk factors and correlates for anemia in HIV treatment-naïve infected patients : a cross-sectional analytical study. 3–7.
Cunha G, Santis D, Menezes D, Crivelenti F, Branda RA, Zomer R, Muniz DA, Momo G, Lima N De, Amorelli-chacel ME, Tadeu D and Artioli A (2011) International Journal of Infectious Diseases Hematological abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. 15: 808-811.
Zhou J, Jaquet A, Bissagnene E, Musick B, Wools-kaloustian K, Maxwell N, Boulle A, Wehbe F, Masys D, Iriondo-perez J, Hemingway-foday J and Law M (2012) Short-term risk of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment in HIV- infected patients in countries in sub-Saharan Africa , Asia-Pacific , and central and South America. Journal of the International AIDS Society. BioMed Central Ltd 15(1): 5. Available at: http://www.jiasociety.org/content/15/1/5.
Shen Y, Wang Z, Lu H, Wang J, Chen J, Liu L and Zhang R (2013) Prevalence of Anemia among Adults with Newly Diagnosed HIV / AIDS in China. 8(9): 1-6.
Amitis Ramezani, Arezoo Aghakhani, Mohammad Reza Sharif, Mohammad Banifazl, Ali Eslamifar, Ali Akbar Velayati (2008). Anemia Prevalence And Related Factors In HIV-Infected Patients: A Cohort Study. Iranian Journal of Pathology. 3(3), 125-128.
Agarwal D, Chakravarty J, Chaube L, Rai M, Agrawal NR and Sundar S (2010) High incidence of zidovudine induced anaemia in HIV infected patients in eastern India. (October): 386-389.
Omoregie R, Omokaro EU, Palmer O, Ogefere HO and Egbeobauwaye A (2009) Prevalence of anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. 11(1).
Lealem G, Tilehum Y, Zewdineh S, Daniel Y (2013). Anemia and Risk Factors in HAART Naıve and HAART Experienced HIV Positive Persons in South West Ethiopia: A Comparative Study. PLOS ONE. 8:8 | e72202.
Johannessen A, Naman E, Gundersen SG and Bruun JN (2011) Antiretroviral treatment reverses HIV-associated anemia in rural Tanzania. BMC Infectious Diseases. BioMed Central Ltd 11(1): 190. Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/11/190.
Denue BA, Bello HS and Abja AU (2013) Changes in blood profile of human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) -infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART ) in North Eastern Nigeria. 5(8): 284-291.
Obirikorang C and Yeboah FA (2009) Blood haemoglobin measurement as a predictive indicator for the progression of HIV / AIDS in resource-limited setting. 7: 1–7.
Curkendall SM, Richardson JT, Emons MF, Fisher AE and Everhard F (2007) Incidence of anaemia among HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy *. 483-490.
Mugisha JO, Shafer LA, Paal L Van Der, Mayanja BN, Eotu H, Hughes P, Whitworth JAG and Grosskurth H (2008) Anaemia in a rural Ugandan HIV cohort : prevalence at enrolment , incidence , diagnosis and associated factors. 13(6): 788–794.