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Keywords = Water

  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 18-32. http://doi.org/10.31586/RemoteSensing.0301.04
    142 Views 121 Downloads 2 Shares PDF Full-text (3.964 MB) PDF Full-text (3.992 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) is unique in East Africa that provides mixed land use activities for the community. The main land uses in LGCA are livestock keeping, wildlife conservation, small scale agriculture, tourism and hunting of wild animals. For decades, Maasai pastoralists coexisted with LGCA but restricted to hunt,
    [...] Read more.
    Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) is unique in East Africa that provides mixed land use activities for the community. The main land uses in LGCA are livestock keeping, wildlife conservation, small scale agriculture, tourism and hunting of wild animals. For decades, Maasai pastoralists coexisted with LGCA but restricted to hunt, set snares and conducting large scale farming. From the year 2000 expansion of agricultural activities have been noted which has escalated the decline of wildlife. I this study the land use/cover change occurred in LGCA for the period of 20 years have been determined and assessed. Supervised classification method was used whereby six classes namely forest, bare land, sand, water, grass land and agriculture were categorized. The results show that from 1996 to 2016 there is a major land cover change on forest, agriculture, bare land, grassland, water bodies and sand by 19.63%, 8.74%, 15.32%, 50.08%, 4.51 %and 1.72%, respectively. Specifically, forest cover is decreasing at 1467.81 ha per year while agriculture is increasing at the rate of 1,467 ha per year. The study concluded that clearing of forest and large scale agriculture has destroyed vegetation cover threatening the existence of wildlife which to a great extent requires immediate measures to counterbalance this effect.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1 of 8

    References
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    URT (1997). The Wildlife Act, 1997. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Dar es Salaam. United Republic of Tanzania.
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    URT (2009). The Wildlife Act, 2009. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Dar es Salaam. United Republic of Tanzania.
    [3]
    Niboye, E, P.(2010) Vegetation Cover Changes in Ngorongoro Conservation Area from 1975 to 2000; The Open Geography Journal, 2010, 3, 15-27
    [4]
    Nelson, F. 2003. Community-based Tourism in Northern Tanzania: Increasing Opportunities, Escalating Conflicts and an Uncertain Future.
    [5]
    Sachedina and Nelson 2010. Tourism and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa
    [6]
    TNRF (2010).Integrating Pastoralist Livelihoods and Wildlife Conservation? Options for Land Use and Conflict Resolution in Loliondo Division, Ngorongoro District -Tanzania.
    [7]
    UNEP, (2008). Serengeti National Park. http://www.unepwcmc.org/sites.html
    [8]
    Homewood, K., Lambin, E. T., Coast, E., Kariuki, A., Kikula, I., Kivelia, J., Said, M., Serneels, S. and Thompson, M. (2001). Long-term changes in Serengeti-Mara wildebeest and land cover: pastoralism, population, or policies? Ecology 98 (22): 12544 ? 12549.
    [9]
    DeFries, R., A. J. Hansen, A. C. Newton, M. Hansen, and J. Townshend. 2005. Isolation of protected areas in tropical forests over the last twenty years. Ecological Applications 15:19?26
    [10]
    Masengeri R. 2012. Framing of Resource use Conflicts in Loliondo Game Controled Area, Tanzania. Unpublished MSc. Report.
    [11]
    Herlocker D. 1999. Rangeland resources in East Africa and their ecology and development. Nairobi: GTZ report 1999.
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    [13]
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    [14]
    Congalton et al., (1983). Assessing landsat classification accuracy using descrete multivariate statistical techniques. Photogrammetry Engineering and Remote Sensing Vol.49, No. 12 pp 1671-1678
    [15]
    Opeyemi Z. A., 2006. Change Detection in Land Use and Land Cover Using Remote ensing Data and GIS. A Case Study of Ilorin and its Environs in Kwara State Nigeria. MSc. Report 44 pages https://www.geospatialworld.net/wp-content/.../04/OpeyemiZubair_ThesisDOC.doc
  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2014, 1(1), 28-37. http://doi.org/10.31586/Agrophysical.0101.05
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    Abstract
    We analyze the experimental data on the dynamics of water and mineral metabolism of tomato plants by using the methods of spectral analysis. Plants were cultivated under controlled conditions. We have used the various compositions of juvenile analogues of thin-layer soil. It is shown that the composition of the soil
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    We analyze the experimental data on the dynamics of water and mineral metabolism of tomato plants by using the methods of spectral analysis. Plants were cultivated under controlled conditions. We have used the various compositions of juvenile analogues of thin-layer soil. It is shown that the composition of the soil analogue significantly affects the dynamics of water-mineral metabolism of plants and plant productivity. It was found that the dynamics of the water and mineral metabolism of plants has a clear oscillatory structure. We have identified the most intense frequencies of this process. It was found that in order to maximize the productivity of plants it is necessary that the process of transpiration should contain simultaneously both high-frequency and low-frequency periodicities. This creates the most favorable environment for the development and functioning of the plant root system. It was shown that vibrations of water metabolism closely connected with the vibrations of the content of chemical elements in plants.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1 of 9

    References
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    Mukhomorov V.K., and Anikina L.M. 2012. Dynamics of Mineral Elements in Plants. Primary Soil Formation. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. Germany. Saarbr?cken. (in Russian).
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    Mukhomorov V.K., Anikina L.M. Stepanova O.A. (2007) Dinamika produktivnosti i kachestva rastitel'noy produktsii i ikh svyaz's informatsionnym obmenom mezhdu sistemami organicheskoye veshchestvo-mikrobioticheskoye soobshchestvo pri pervichnom pochvoobrazovanii. (The dynamics of efficiency and quality of plant products and their relation with information exchange between systems of organic matter and biotic community during of the primary pedogenesis). In: Modern agrophysics for the high agrotechnologies. International Conference. St. Petersburg, Sept., 25-27, 2007, pp. 210-211. (in Russian).
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    Mukhomorov V.K., and Anikina L.M. (2008) Information Streams in Coupled Organic Matter-Microbiotic Community Systems of the Root-Inhabited Media under Primary Pedogenic Processes. Russian Agricultural Sciences, 34, 322-324.
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    Ermakov, E.I. (2009). The controllable technogenic agroecosystem of the noosphere level. In: Ermakov E.I. Selected Works. St. Petersburg. pp. 75-80.
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    Sokolov V.N. (1996) Microworld of argillaceous rocks. Soros Educational Journal. pp. 56-64.
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    Udalova O.R. (2014) Thesis. Technological bases of cultivation of tomato plants under controlled agro-ecosystems. St. Petersburg.
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2015, 2(3), 95-103. http://doi.org/10.31586/ChemicalEngineering.0203.03
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    Abstract
    The sanctuaries of Demeter and Asklepios are part of the Dion archaeological site that sits among the eastern foothills of Mount Olympus. The main building materials are limestones and conglomerates. Sandstones, marbles, and ceramic plinths were also used. The materials consist mainly of calcite and/or dolomite, whereas the deteriorated surfaces
    [...] Read more.
    The sanctuaries of Demeter and Asklepios are part of the Dion archaeological site that sits among the eastern foothills of Mount Olympus. The main building materials are limestones and conglomerates. Sandstones, marbles, and ceramic plinths were also used. The materials consist mainly of calcite and/or dolomite, whereas the deteriorated surfaces contain also secondary and recrystallized calcite and dolomite, gypsum, various inorganic compounds, fluoroapatite, microorganisms and other organic compounds. Cracks and holes were observed in various parts of the stones. The influence of specific weathering agents and factors to the behavior of the materials was examined. The particular environmental conditions in Dion combine increased moisture and rain fall, insolation and great temperature differences, abundance of intensive surface and underground water bodies in the surrounding area, an area full of plants and trees, therefore, they can cause extensive chemical, biological and mechanical decay of the monuments. The following physical characteristics of the building materials have been studied: bulk density, open porosity, pore size distribution, water absorption and desorption, capillary absorption and desorption. The chemical composition of bulk precipitation, surface and underground water was investigated. The salts presence and crystallization was examined. The influence of the water presence to the behavior of the materials was examined by in situ IR thermometer measurements. Temperature values increased from the lower to the upper parts of the building stones and they significantly depend on the orientation of the walls. The results indicate the existence of water in the bulk of the materials due to capillary penetration. The existence of water in the bulk of the materials due to capillary penetration, the cycles of wet-dry conditions, correlated with the intensive surface and underground water presence in the whole surrounding area, lead to partial dissolution-recrystallization of the carbonate material and loss of the structural cohesion and the surface stability.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 4 of 9

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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2015, 2(3), 110-116. http://doi.org/10.31586/Agriculture.0203.05
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    Abstract
    The effect irrigation method and tillage on yield and irrigation water productivity of rice was conducted in split plot experiment with three replications during the dry seasons 2012 and 2013 in field conditions at the Lake Geriyo Irrigation scheme farms in Yola, Nigeria. 3 irrigation management: 3, 6 and 9
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    The effect irrigation method and tillage on yield and irrigation water productivity of rice was conducted in split plot experiment with three replications during the dry seasons 2012 and 2013 in field conditions at the Lake Geriyo Irrigation scheme farms in Yola, Nigeria. 3 irrigation management: 3, 6 and 9 day interval with 3 tillage practices: zero, shallow and deep soil tillage were studied. Results showed that there were significant differences in paddy yield, harvest index and irrigation water productivity. 6 days interval irrigation management was placed to one group with 3 days irrigation interval on paddy yield and harvest index; higher water productivity of 3.58 and 3.51 kg ha-1 mm-1were recorded with 6 days irrigation interval in both seasons respectively. Therefore it can be recommended that 6 day interval irrigation which had better irrigation water productivity and saved up 29% irrigation water be adopted for rice cultivation under clay loam soils of guinea savanna zone of Nigeria.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2015, 2(4), 134-140. http://doi.org/10.31586/Biology.0204.04
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    Abstract
    Methionine, a sulfur amino acid, is the first amino acid that is required for many proteins, during synthesis. Our preliminary studies showed that this compound was produced during the late (post-stationary) secondary phase of growth. Therefore, restriction of methionine may be a useful strategy in limiting cancer growth. The bacterial
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    Methionine, a sulfur amino acid, is the first amino acid that is required for many proteins, during synthesis. Our preliminary studies showed that this compound was produced during the late (post-stationary) secondary phase of growth. Therefore, restriction of methionine may be a useful strategy in limiting cancer growth. The bacterial strain used in this study was Citrobacter freundii (NRRL B-2643) and their vgb+ recombinant strain. A 1/100 inoculum of overnight cultures grown in LB was made in 50 ml LB in 150 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. Inocula in flasks were grown for 24 h at 30 ?C in a 200 rpm water-bath. For MGL production, 250 ?L of this O/N culture was then inoculated into 150 mL conical flask containing 50 mL of sterile mineral salts medium supplemented with 1 % or 0.1 % (w/v) glucose, respectively. This was incubated for 96 h at 30 ?C, 200 rpm on an orbital shaker. The highest MGL concentration (2,02) was reached by the recombinant strain of Cf[pUC8:15] 72 h after the start of incubation MM+0,1% glucose source. In comparison, the wild type strain produced 3,14 of MGL concentration 72 h was reached MM+0,1% glucose source. The poor media and secondary phase (72 h and up) was used to for MGL production. This is more appropriate. Plasmid is disadvantages in the secondary stage.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1 of 5

    References
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  • Open Access Review Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(4), 177-182. http://doi.org/10.31586/EnvironmentalChemistry.0304.05
    16 Views 24 Downloads PDF Full-text (721.521 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Nano-sized particles of less than 100 nm in diameter are attracting the scientific community due to their wide range of new applications in various fields including biophysics, material and medical sciences. Nanoparticles of noble metals such as silver have been found to reveal significantly distinct physical, chemical and biological properties
    [...] Read more.
    Nano-sized particles of less than 100 nm in diameter are attracting the scientific community due to their wide range of new applications in various fields including biophysics, material and medical sciences. Nanoparticles of noble metals such as silver have been found to reveal significantly distinct physical, chemical and biological properties from their bulk counterparts. As industrial production of nano-sized particles is increasing day by day, their dissemination in natural environments is also at an increase. This is leading to substantial water and soil pollution. Finding the adverse effects of such nano-sized particles on different faunal species is thus of utmost importance. In the present paper, toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on fish and rat models have been presented so as to have a view about the type of the damage posed by them. This study will not only add to the existing knowledge about the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on faunal species but also help in formulating future pollution controlling programs.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 2 of 2

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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2019, 4(2), 68-79. http://doi.org/10.31586/Chemistry.0402.04
    19 Views 11 Downloads PDF Full-text (1.117 MB) PDF Full-text (1.129 MB) PDF Full-text (1.130 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of methyl cellulose (MC) polysaccharide by hexacholroiridate (IV) in aqueous perchlorate solutions at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 mole dm-3 has been investigated, spectrophotometrically. The experimental results showed first-order dependence in [IrCl6]2- and fractional first-order kinetics with respect to the MC concentration. The
    [...] Read more.
    The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of methyl cellulose (MC) polysaccharide by hexacholroiridate (IV) in aqueous perchlorate solutions at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 mole dm-3 has been investigated, spectrophotometrically. The experimental results showed first-order dependence in [IrCl6]2- and fractional first-order kinetics with respect to the MC concentration. The reaction rate was found to increase with decreasing the [H+]. A kinetic evidence for formation of 1:1 intermediate complex was revealed. The reaction kinetics seems to be of considerable complexity where one chloride ion from hexacholoiridate (IV) oxidant may act as a bridging ligand between the oxidant and the substrate within the formed intermediate complex. However the added chloride ions and oxidation products were found to have negligible effects on the reaction rate, the added acrylonitrile indicated the intervention of free-radical mechanism during the oxidation process. The kinetic parameters have been evaluated and a tentative reaction mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 5 of 5

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