The magnetotelluric method has been used in this work to compare the nature of the sedimentary-metamorphic contacts of the Douala and Kribi-Campo sub-basins in Cameroon. The results show that the sedimentary-metamorphic contact zones for the two sub-basins, marked by a subsidence of the low resistivity materials on the sedimentary formations
The magnetotelluric method has been used in this work to compare the nature of the sedimentary-metamorphic contacts of the Douala and Kribi-Campo sub-basins in Cameroon. The results show that the sedimentary-metamorphic contact zones for the two sub-basins, marked by a subsidence of the low resistivity materials on the sedimentary formations and uplift of the high resistivity materials characterized by intrusive bodies of higher values of resistivity on the metamorphic formations, are structurally similar,. However, the very low values of resistivity of rocks in the Douala sub-basin is suggestive of high porosity, permeability and high level of saline ions dissociation leading to high conductivity. These rocks should be of unconsolidated sediments for the sedimentary formation and gneiss for the metamorphic formation. On the contrary, the very high values of resistivity for rocks in the Kribi-Campo sub-basin indicate the absence of free mobile electrons and ions and low porosity, permeability and non-conductivity. The sedimentary formation of this sub-basin should be composed of limestone and conglomerates rocks with some gneissic and unconsolidated granitic materials. The rocks in the metamorphic formation should be completely granitic in nature. The shallow depth of penetration of only 4 km of telluric current in the Douala sub-basin is enough evidence that the tectonic events responsible for the emplacement of this contact zone were limited to the earth crust. On the other hand, in the Kribi-Campo sub-basin the tectonic events should have originated from within the earth mantle as the depth of penetration of telluric current attains 150 km. Full article
Brownfield Michael, E., and Charpentier Ronald R. (2006). Geology and Total Petroleum Systems of the West-Central Coastal Province (7203), West Africa. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2207-B, Reston, Virginia: 2006
Edwards, Alan, and Bignell Roger, (1988). Hydrocarbon potential of W. African salt basin: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 86, no. 50,71?74.
SNH, (2015). Blocks on offer in the Rio Del Rey, Douala/Kribi-Campo and Mamfe basins.
Clifford, A. C. (1986). African oil?past, present, and future, in Halbouty, M.T., ed., Future petroleum provinces of the world: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 40, 339?372.
Rabinowitz, P. D., Labrecque, J. (1979). The Mesozoic South Atlantic Ocean and evolution of its continental margins. J Geophys Res 1979; 84 (11): 5973-6002.
Ross, D. (1993). Geology and hydrocarbon potential of Rio Muni area, Equatorial Guinea: Oil and Gas Journal, v. 91, August 23, 1993, 96?100.
Turner, J. P., (1995). Gravity-driven structures and rift basin evolution?Rio Muni Basin, offshore West Africa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 79, no. 8, p. 1138?1158.
Nguene, F. R, Tamfu, S. F., Loule, J. P., Ngassa, C. (1991). Palaeoenvironments of the Douala and Kribi/Campo sub-basins, in Cameroon, West Africa. In: Curnelle R, Ed. African Geology, 1 st Colloquium on Stratigraphy and Paleogeography of West African Sedimentary Basins, 2 nd Colloquium of African Micropaleontology. Libreville 1991, Boussens: Elf Aquitaine 1992; 129-39.
Shang, C. K. (2001). Geology, Geochemistry and Geochronology of Archaean Rocks from the Sangmelima Region, Ntem complex, NW Congo craton, South Cameroon. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tu?bingen, Germany, 313p.
Tchameni, R., Mezger, K., Nsifa, N.E., Pouclet, A., (2001). Crustal origin of Early Proterozoic syenites in the Congo craton (Ntem complex), South Cameroon. Lithos 57, 23?42.
Nsifa, E.N., Riou, R., (1990): Post Archaean migmatization in the charnockitic series of the Ntem complex, Congo craton, southern Cameroun. 15th Colloquium on African Geology, Publications Occasionnelle, CIFEG 22, 33?36.
Lasserre, M., Soba, D., (1976). Age Lib?rien des granodiorites et des gneiss a pyrox?nes du Cameroun M?ridional. Bulletin BRGM 2 (4), 17?32.
Njoh O. A., Essien J. A., et Tembi A., (2014). Albian ? Turonian palynomorphs from the Mundeck and Logbajeck Formations, Ediki River, north-western part of Douala sub-basin. Sciences, Technologies et Developpement, volume 15, 66 ? 77, ISSN 1029 ? 2225
Njingti-Nfor (2004). New Methods of Analysing and Interpreting Audiomagnetotellurics Data. Doctorate thesis, University of Yaound? I, Yaound?, 185 p.
Recard N. N. P., Mfayakouo C. B., and Bitom D., (2014). Paleogeographic Evolution of the Eastern Edge of the Douala Basin from Early Cenomanian to Turonian. The Open Geology Journal, 8, 124-141.
Meyers J. B., Rosendahl B. R., Groschel-Becker H., Austin Jr J. A., Rona P. A. (1996). Deep penetrating MCS imaging of the rift-to-drift transition, offshore Douala and North Gabon basins, West Africa. Mar Petrol Geol 1996; 13 (7): 791-835.
De Vries, (1936). Mission de recherche des hydrocarbures du Cameroun effectu? en 1935 ? 1936. Rapport g?n?ral, Services des mines au Cameroun. 72p.
Njike Ngaha P., R, (2004). Palyno-stratigraphique et reconstitution des paleoenvironnements du Cr?tac? de l'Est du Bassin s?dimentaire de Douala (Cameroun).
Njike, N. P. R., and Belinga, S. M., (1987). Le Diachronisme du gr?s de base, le pal?ooenvironnement et le r?le de l?ouverture de l?Atlantique Sud. Ann. Fac. Sci. Terre IV No. 3-4, 103 ? 119.
Dumort, J. C., (1968). Notice explicative sur la faille de Douala ? Ouest. Direction des mines et de la g?ologie du Cameroun. 69p. index, 1 carte h.t.
Djomeni A. L., Ntamak-Nida M. J., Mvondo F. O., Kwetche P. G. F., Kissaaka J. B. I., and Mooh-Enougui E. (2011). Soft-sediment deformation structures in Mid-Cretaceous to Mid-Tertiary deposits, Centre East of the Douala sub-basin, Cameroon: Preliminary results of the tectonic control. Syllabus Review 2 (3), 2011: 92 - 105
Maurizot, P., Abessolo, A., Feybesse, J. L., Johan, V. and Lecomte, P. (1986). Etude et prospection mini?re du sud- ouest Cameroun. Synth?se des travaux de 1978 ? 1985. Rapport, BRGM, 274p
Toteu, S. F., Penaye, J., Poudjom Djomani, Y. H., (2004). Geodynamic evolution of the Pan-African belt in Central Africa with special reference to Cameroon. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 41, 73?85.
Benderitter, Y. (1982). Interpr?tation des mesures magn?totelluriques obtenues avec un r?sistivim?tre ECA. CNRS, CRG, Garchy.
Manguelle-Dicoum, E. (1988). Etude G?ophysique des structures superficielles et profondes de la r?gion de Mbalmayo. Th?se de Doctorat es-sciences (G?ophysique). Universit? de Yaound?, 202 p.
Parasnis D. S. (1979). Principles of Applied Geophysics. Chapman and Hall. (3rd Edition) London, 275p.
Zohdy, A. A. R., Eaton, G. P. and Mabey, D. R. (1990). Application of Surface Geophysics to Ground-Water Investigations. 4th Edition, United States Geological Survey, Denver, 123p.
Geza K. (1966). Principles of Direct Current Resistivity Prospecting. Geopublication Associates Series 1- No. 1
Telford, W. M., Geldart, L. P., Sheriff, R. E. and Keys, D. A. (1990). Applied Geophysics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Cagniard, L. (1953). Basic Theory of the Magnetotelluric Method of Geophysical Prospecting. Geophysics, 18, 605-635.
Redmond, J. L. (1972). Null Combination in Fault Interpretation. Bulletin ?American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 56, 150-166.
Bates, R. L. and Jackson, J. A. (1987). Glossary of Geology. 3rd Edition, American Geological Institute, Alexandria, 788 p.
Lee, S. K., Kim, H. G., Song, Y. and Lee, C. (2009). MT2DInvMATLAB?A Program in FORTRAN and MATLAB for 2D Inversion. Computer and Geoscience, 35, 1722-1734.
Njingti-Nfor, Manguelle-Diccoum, E., Mbom-Abane and Tadjou, J. M. (2001). Evidence of Major Tectonic Dislocations along the Southern Edge of the Pan African Mobile Belt and the Congo Craton Contact in the Southern Region of Cameroon. The 2nd International Conference on the Geology of Africa, Assuit, Vol. 1, 799-811.
Owona Angue, M. L. C., Nguiya, S., Nouayou, R., Tokam Kamga, A. P. and Manguelle-Dicoum, E., (2011). Geophysical Investigation of the Transition Zone between the Congo Craton and the Kribi-Campo Sedimentary Basin (South-West Cameroon). South African Journal of Geology, 114, 145-158.
Iboum Kissaaka, J. B., Ntamak-Nida, M. J., Ngueutchoua, G., Mvondo Owono, F., Djomeni Nitcheu, A. L., Fowe Kuetche, P. G. and Bourquin, S. (2016). Syn-rift Tectonic Markers from Outcrops and Offshore Seismic Data of the Southern Part of Kribi-Campo Sub-Basin (Cameroon, West African Margin). Comunica??es Geological, 99, 35-42.
Kue Petou R. M., Owona Angue. M. L. C., Njingti-Nfor, N., Ndougsa-Mbarga, T. and Manguelle-Dicoum, E. (2017b). Determination of Structural and Geometrical Parameters of the Kribi-Campo Sedimentary Sub Basin Using Gravity Data. International Journal of Geosciences, 8, 1210-1224.
The use of finite element models as research tools in biomechanics and orthopedics grew exponentially over the last two decades. However, the attention to mesh quality, model validation and appropriate energy balance methods and the reporting of these metrics has not kept pace with the general use of finite element
The use of finite element models as research tools in biomechanics and orthopedics grew exponentially over the last two decades. However, the attention to mesh quality, model validation and appropriate energy balance methods and the reporting of these metrics has not kept pace with the general use of finite element modeling. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to develop the nonlinear filter and thermal buckling of an FGM panel under the combined effect of elevated temperature conditions and aerodynamic loading is investigated using a finite element model based on the thin plate theory and von Karman strain-displacement relations to account for moderately large deflection. It is found that the temperature increase has an adverse effect on the FGM panel flutter characteristics through decreasing the critical dynamic pressure. Decreasing the volume fraction enhances flutter characteristics, but this is limited by the structural integrity aspect. Structural finite element analysis has been employed to determine the FGM panel's adaptive response while under the influence of a uniaxial compressive load in excess of its critical buckling value. By increasing the applications of using composite materials inside aviation stages, it is visualized that the versatile FGM plate setup will broaden the operational execution over traditional materials and structures, especially when the structure is presented to a raised temperature. The vicinity of air motion facilitating stream brings about delaying the locking temperature and in stifling under loads, while the temperature build gives route for higher thermal-cycle abundance. Full article
Ibrahim, H. H., Yoo, H. H., & Lee, K. S. (2009). Supersonic flutter of functionally grated panels subject to acoustic and thermal loads. Journal of Aircraft, 46 (2), 593-600.
Ibrahim, H. H., Yoo, H. H., & Lee, K. S. (2009). Aero-thermo- mechanical characteristics of imperfect shape memory alloy hybrid composite panels. JournalofSoundandVibration, 325 (3), 583-596.
Ibrahim, H. H., Yoo, H. H., Tawfik, M., & Lee, K. S. (2010). Thermo-acoustic random response of temperature-dependent functionally graded material panels. Computational Mechanics, 46(3), 377-386.
Ibrahim, H. H., & Tawfik, M. (2010). Limit-cycle oscillations of functionally graded material plates subject to aerodynamic and thermal loads. Journal of Vibration and Control, 16(14), 2147-2166.
Yu, J. S., & Jung, Y. C. (2013). Paper: Micromechanics Modeling of Functionally Graded Materials Containing Multiple Heterogeneities. ????????? (????), 26(6), 392-397.
Yaghmaei, M., & Naei, M. H. (2008). Large deflection behavior of simply supported FG Circular plates under mechanical and thermal loadings via FSDT meshless method. Proceedings of the 3rd IASME/WSEAS International concerence on continuum mechanics. Chicago
Allah, M.A.A.A., Ward, S.A.E.S. & Youssef, A.A. (2013). Effect of Functionally Graded Material of Disc Spacer with Presence of Multi-Contaminating Particles on Electric Field inside Gas Insulated Bus Duct. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), 3(6), p. 831-848.
Yaghoobi, H., & Torabi, M. (2013). Exact solution for thermal buckling of functionally graded plates resting on elastic foundations with various boundary conditions. Journal of Thermal Stresses, 36(9), 869-894.
Tingjun, Y. & Linna, Z. (2013). Finite Element Model of Shape Memory Alloy Incorporating Drucker-Prager Model. TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering, 11(7), 3915-3 921.
Asemi, K., Salehi, M., & Akhlaghi, M. (2014). Post-buckling analysis of FGM annular sector plates based on three dimensional elasticity graded finite elements. International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, 67, 164-177.
Belinha, J., & Dinis, L. M. J. S. (2006). Analysis of plates and laminates using the element-free Galerkin method. Computers & structures, 84(22), 1547-1559.
Randjbaran, E., Zahari, R., Majid, D. L., Jalil, N. A. A., Vaghei, R., & Ahmadi, R. (2013) An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Stacking Sequence on Hybrid Composite Materials Response to Open-Hole Compression Strength. MATRIX Academic International Online Journal of Engineering and Technology, 1(2), 1-6.
Randjbaran, E., Zahari, R., Majid, D. L., Jalil, N. A. A., Vaghei, R., & Ahmadi, R. (2013) The Effects of Stacking Sequence Layers of Hybrid Composite Materials in Energy Absorption under the High Velocity Ballistic Impact Conditions: An Experimental Investigation. MATRIX Academic International Online Journal of Engineering and Technology, 1(2), 30-37.
Karamizadeh, Sasan, Shahidan M. Abdullah, Mehran Halimi, Jafar Shayan, and Mohammad javad Rajabi. "Advantage and Drawback of Support Vector Machine Functionality."
Randjbaran, E., Zahari, R., Majid, D. L., Jalil, N. A. A., & Vaghei, R. (2013) Effects of Stacking Sequence on Compression Response Testing of Carbon Fibre and Hybrids: Fibrous-Glass/Carbon/Kevlar/ Epoxy Composite Plates. MATRIX Academic International Online Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2(1), 13-17.
Randjbaran, E., Zahari, R., Majid, D. L., Jalil, N. A., Vaghei, R., & Ahmadi, R. (2013). The effects of stacking sequence layers of six layers composite materials in ballistic energy absorption. International Journal of Material Science Innovations, 1(6), 293-305.
Randjbaran, E., Zahari, R., Majid, D. L., Jalil, N. A. A., Vaghei, R., & Ahmadi, R. (2014). Experimental Study of the Influence of Stacking Order of the Fibrous Layers on Laminated Hybrid Composite Plates Subjected to Compression Loading. Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(1), 01-08.
Randjbaran, E., Zahari, R., Abdul Jalil, N. A., & Abang Abdul Majid, D. L. (2014). Hybrid Composite Laminates Reinforced with Kevlar/Carbon/Glass Woven Fabrics for Ballistic Impact Testing. The Scientific World Journal, doi:10.1155/2014/413753.
Duc, N. D., & Cong, P. H. (2013). Nonlinear postbuckling of symmetric S-FGM plates resting on elastic foundations using higher order shear deformation plate theory in thermal environments. Composite Structures, 100, 566-574.
Shen, H. S. (2013). Thermal postbuckling of shear deformable FGM cylindrical shells surrounded by an elastic medium. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 139(8), 979-991.
Kiani, Y., & Eslami, M. R. (2014). Thermal Post-buckling of Imperfect Circular FGM Plates: Examination of Voigt, Mori- Tanaka and Self-Consistent Schemes. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology.
Shen, H.-S., & Wang, Z.-X. (2010). Nonlinear bending of FGM plates subjected to combined loading and resting on elastic foundations. Composite Structures, 92(10), 2517-2524.
Yaghoobi, H., & Torabi, M. (2013). Post-buckling and nonlinear free vibration analysis of geometrically imperfect functionally graded beams resting on nonlinear elastic foundation. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 37(18), 8324-8340.
Karamizadeh, S., Abdullah, S. M., Zamani, M., & Kherikhah, A. (2015). Pattern Recognition Techniques: Studies on Appropriate Classifications. In AdvancedComputerand CommunicationEngineeringTechnology(pp. 791-799). Springer International Publishing.
Yaghoobi, H., & Torabi, M. (2013). An analytical approach to large amplitude vibration and post-buckling of functionally graded beams rest on non-linear elastic foundation. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 51(1), 39-52.
Torabi, M., & Yaghoobi, H. (2013). Accurate solution for acceleration motion of a vertically falling spherical particle in incompressible Newtonian media. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 91(2), 376-381.
Torabi, M., Yaghoobi, H., & Boubaker, K. (2013). Accurate solution for motion of a spherical solid particle in plane Couette Newtonian fluid mechanical flow using HPM?Pad? approximant and the Boubaker polynomials expansion scheme BPES. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 58(1), 224-228.
Torabi, M., Yaghoobi, H., Colantoni, A., Biondi, P., & Boubaker, K. (2013). Analysis of Radiative Radial Fin with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity Using Nonlinear Differential Transformation Methods. Chinese Journal of Engineering, 2013.
Torabi, M., & Yaghoobi, H. (2013). Heat Transfer Analysis from Rotating Porous Plate with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity. ISI BILIMI VE TEKNIGI DERGISI- JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 33(2), 75-82.
Karamizadeh, Sasan, Shahidan M. Abdullah, and Mazdak Zamani. "An Overview of Holistic Face Recognition." IJRCCT 2, no. 9 (2013): 738-741.
Yaghoobi, H., & Fereidoon, A. (2014). Mechanical and thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded plates resting on elastic foundations: An assessment of a simple refined nth- order shear deformation theory. Composites Part B: Engineering, 62, 54-64.
Torabi, M., & Yaghoobi, H. (2013). Series Solution for Convective-Radiative Porous Fin Using Differential Transformation Method. Journal of Porous Media, 16(4).
Torabi, M., Yaghoobi, H., & Kiani, M. R. (2013). Thermal analysis of the convective-radiative fin with a step change in thickness and temperature dependent thermal conductivity. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 51(3), 593-602.
Vaghei, R., Hejazi, F., Taheri, H., Jaafar, M. S., & Ali, A. A. A. (2014), Evaluate Performance of Precast Concrete Wall to Wall Connection. APCBEE Procedia, 9, 285-290.
Karamizadeh, S., Abdullah, S. M., Manaf, A. A., Zamani, M., & Hooman, A. (2013). An Overview of Principal Component Analysis. JournalofSignalandInformationProcessing, 4, 173.
Randjbaran, E., Zahari, R., & Vaghei, R. (2014). Computing Simulation of Post-buckling in Functionally Graded Materials-A Review. TELKOMNIKAIndonesianJournalofElectrical Engineering, 12(12).
Mukhomorov, V. K. (2014). Bioactivity - Structure. Interrelation of Electronic andInformation Factors of Biologically Activity of Chemical Compounds. TrendsJournal ofSciencesResearch, 1(1), 38-48.
Zahari, R., Azmee, A. H., Mustapha, F., Salit, M. S., Varatharajoo, R., & Shakrine, A. (2008). Prediction of progressive failure in woven glass/epoxy composite laminated panels. Jurnal mekanikal, 25, 80-91.
Rasid, Z. A., Zahari, R., & Ayob, A. (2014). The Instability Improvement of the Symmetric Angle-Ply and Cross-Ply Composite Plates with Shape Memory Alloy Using Finite Element Method. Advances inMechanicalEngineering, 2014.
Sultan, M. T. H., Basri, S., Rafie, A. S. M., Yidris, N., Mustapha, F., Zahari, R., & Ajir, M. R. (2014, July). Impact Damage Analysis for Glass Reinforced Epoxy Laminated Plates Using Single Stage Gas Gun. In AppliedMechanicsand Materials(Vol. 564, pp. 382-387).
Hassab, M. P., Mahmud, A. S., Rafie, A. M., & Zahari, R. (2014, July). Alternative Numerical Validation Methodology for Short-Term Development Projects. In AppliedMechanics andMaterials(Vol. 564, pp. 638-643).
Rasid, Z. A. (2015, January). The Natural Frequency of the Shape Memory Alloy Anti-Symmetric Angle-Ply Composite Plates Using Finite Element Method. In Applied Mechanics and Materials(Vol. 695, pp. 52-55).
Haery, H. A., Kim, H. S., Zahari, R., & Amini, E. (2013).Tensile strength of notched carbon/glass/epoxy hybrid composite laminates before and after fatigue loading. JournalofIndustrial Textiles, 1528083713487757.
Mukhomorov, V. K., & Anikina, L. M. (2014). Evolutionary Dynamics of Intercoupling of the Chemical Elements in Plants and Primary Soil-Forming Processes. TrendsJournalof SciencesResearch, 1(1), 1-11.
Randjbaran, E., Zahari, R., & Vaghei, R. (2014) Scanning Electron Microscopy Interpretation In Carbon Nanotubes Composite Materials After Postbuckling - Review Paper. MATRIX Academic International Online Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2(2), 1-6.
Rasid, Z. A. (2015). The Natural Frequency of the Shape Memory Alloy Anti-Symmetric Angle-Ply Composite Plates Using Finite Element Method. In AppliedMechanicsand Materials(Vol. 695, pp. 52-55).
Nazari, A., Maghsoudpour, A., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2015). Flexuralstrengthofplainandfibre-reinforced boroaluminosilicate geopolymer. ConstructionandBuilding Materials, 76, 207-213.
Nazari, A., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2015). Compressive strength of functionally graded geopolymers: Role of position of layers. ConstructionandBuildingMaterials, 75, 31-34.
Nazari, A., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2015). Hybrid effects of alumina and silica nanoparticles on water absorption of geopolymers: Application of Taguchi approach. Measurement, 60, 240-246.
Nazari, A., Maghsoudpour, A., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2015). Flexuralstrengthofplainandfibre-reinforced boroaluminosilicate geopolymer. ConstructionandBuilding Materials, 76, 207-213.
Nazari, A., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2014). Modeling of Compressive Strength of Geopolymers by a Hybrid ANFIS-ICA Approach. JournalofMaterials inCivilEngineering.
Nazari, A., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2014). Modelling of fracture strength of functionally graded geopolymer. Constructionand BuildingMaterials, 58, 38-45.
Nazari, A., & Sanjayan, J. G. (2014). Developing of non-linear weight functions for mix design optimization of cementitious systems. Measurement, 57, 154-166.
The sanctuaries of Demeter and Asklepios are part of the Dion archaeological site that sits among the eastern foothills of Mount Olympus. The main building materials are limestones and conglomerates. Sandstones, marbles, and ceramic plinths were also used. The materials consist mainly of calcite and/or dolomite, whereas the deteriorated surfaces
The sanctuaries of Demeter and Asklepios are part of the Dion archaeological site that sits among the eastern foothills of Mount Olympus. The main building materials are limestones and conglomerates. Sandstones, marbles, and ceramic plinths were also used. The materials consist mainly of calcite and/or dolomite, whereas the deteriorated surfaces contain also secondary and recrystallized calcite and dolomite, gypsum, various inorganic compounds, fluoroapatite, microorganisms and other organic compounds. Cracks and holes were observed in various parts of the stones. The influence of specific weathering agents and factors to the behavior of the materials was examined. The particular environmental conditions in Dion combine increased moisture and rain fall, insolation and great temperature differences, abundance of intensive surface and underground water bodies in the surrounding area, an area full of plants and trees, therefore, they can cause extensive chemical, biological and mechanical decay of the monuments. The following physical characteristics of the building materials have been studied: bulk density, open porosity, pore size distribution, water absorption and desorption, capillary absorption and desorption. The chemical composition of bulk precipitation, surface and underground water was investigated. The salts presence and crystallization was examined. The influence of the water presence to the behavior of the materials was examined by in situ IR thermometer measurements. Temperature values increased from the lower to the upper parts of the building stones and they significantly depend on the orientation of the walls. The results indicate the existence of water in the bulk of the materials due to capillary penetration. The existence of water in the bulk of the materials due to capillary penetration, the cycles of wet-dry conditions, correlated with the intensive surface and underground water presence in the whole surrounding area, lead to partial dissolution-recrystallization of the carbonate material and loss of the structural cohesion and the surface stability. Full article
Young, D., (2008) ?Salt attack and rising damp, Technical Guide? Melbourne, Australia
Price, C.A., (1996) ?Stone conservation: an overview of current research? Getty Conservation Institute, Santa Monica, CA, xiii, 73 pp.
Winkler, EM., (1997) ?Stone in architecture: properties, durability? Springer-Verlag, Berlin; New York, xvi, 313 pp.
Lan, T.T.N., Nishimura, R., Tsujino, Y., Satoh, Y., Thoa, N.T.P., Yokoi, M., Maeda, Y., (2005) ?The effects of air pollution and climatic factors on atmospheric corrosion of marble under field exposure? Corrosion Science, 47, 1023?1038.
Skoulikidis, T., (2000) ?Corrosion and conservation of the building materials of the monuments? University Editions of Creta
Moreno, F., Vilela, S.A.G, Antunes, A.S.G., Alves, C.A.S., (2006) ?Capillary-rising salt pollution and granitic stone erosive decay in the parish church of Torre de Moncorvo (NE Portugal)-implications for conservation strategy? Journal of Cultural Heritage, 7, 56?66.
Camuffo, D., Del Monte, M., Sabbioni, C., Vittori, O., (1982) ?Wetting deterioration and visual features of stone surfaces in an urban area? Atmospheric Environment 16-9, 2253-2259.
Camuffo, D., Del Monte, M., Sabbioni, C., (1983) ?Origin and growth mechanisms of the sulfated crusts on urban limestone? Water, Air and Soil Pollution 19, 351-359.
Del Monte, M., Sabbioni, C., Ventura, A., Zappia, G., (1984) ?Crystal growth from carbonaceous particulates? The Science of the Total Environment 36, 247-254.
Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Sebastian, E., (1996) ?Role of particulate matter from vehicle exhaust on porous stones (limestone) sulfation? The Science of the Total Environment 187, 79-91.
Keatings, K., Tassie, G.J., Flower, R.J., Hassan, F.A., Hamdan, M.A.R., Hughes, M., Arrowsmith, C., (2007) ?An Examination of Groundwater Within the Hawara Pyramid, Egypt? Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, 22, 5, 533?554.
Simao, J., Ruiz-Agudob, E., Rodriguez-Navarro, C., (2006) ?Effects of particulate matter from gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust emissions on silicate stones sulfation? Atmospheric Environment, 40, 6905?6917.
Sharma, P.K., Khandelwal, M., Singh, T.N., (2007) ?Variation on physico-mechanical properties of Kota stone under different watery environments? Building and Environment, 42, 4117?4123.
Moropoulou, A., Avdelidis, N.P., Koui, M., Kanellopoulos, N.K., (2000) ?Dual band infrared thermography as a NDT tool for the characterization of the building materials and conservation performance in historic structures. In: T. MATIKAS, N. MEYENDORF, G. BAAKLINI, R. GILMORE ed. Nondestructive Methods for Materials Characterization, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 591, 169-174.
Moropoulou, A., Delegou, E.T., Avdelidis, N.P., (2002) ?NDT planning methodology of conservation interventions on historic buildings?, In: R.V. GRIEKEN, K. JANSSENS, L. VAN`T DACK, G. MEERSMAN, ed. 7th International Conference on Non-destructive Testing and Microanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental Heritage, Book of Proceedings.
Christaras, B., (1998) ?Natural building stones. Technical characteristics ? Non destructive methods of study. Notes for the post- graduate courses of ?Monument protection?, NTUA ? Dept. of Chemical Engineering.
Papanikolaou, E., Spathis, P., Christaras, B., Melfos, V., Pingiatoglou, S., (2010) ?Preliminary Observations on the Buinding Materials and the Deterioration Problems of the Monuments of Demeter and Asklepios Sanctuaries in the Arghaeological Site of Dion? 8th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, 31 May-2 June 2010 Patras, Greece.
Papanikolaou, E., Spathis, P., Melfos, V., Christaras, B., Pavlidou, E., (2011) ?Characterization and Properties of the Building Materials for the Determination of Weathering of Sanctuaries in the Archaeological Site of Dion, Greece? Salt Weathering on Buildings and Stone Sculptures, SWBSS 2011, Limassol, Cyprus, 19-22 October 2011.
Papanikolaou E., Spathis P., Christaras B., Melfos V, Katsiotis N.(2012): ?Application of Infrared Thermometry and Ultrasonic Velocity for the Investigation of the Building Materials of Historic Monuments of Dion, Greece?, SPIE Smart Structures/NDE Symposium, San Diego, California, USA, 11-15 March, 2012, "Smart Sensor Phenomena, Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration V" Conference (SSN08), "Cultural Heritage and Non Destructive Testing" Session.
Papanikolaou E., Spathis P., Samara C., Melfos V., Christaras B., Sawidis T.. (2012): Effect of environmental factors to the deterioration of stones monuments in the Archaeological Site of Dion. ?Protection and Restoration of the Environment XI? conference. Thessaloniki, Greece, 3- 6 July 2012.
ICCROM ARC, Borrelli, E., Urland, A., (1999) ?Laboratory Handbook? Rome, Italy.
Avdelidis, N.P., Moropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., (2003) ?Detection of water deposits and movement in porous materials by infrared imaging?, Infrared Physics & Technology, 44, 183-190.
Avdelidis, N.P., Moropoulou, A., (2004) ?Applications of infrared thermography for the investigation of historic structures?, Journal of Cultural Heritage, 5, 119?127.
Kouimtzis, Th., Samara, C., Voutsa, D., Zachariadis, G., (1994) ?Evaluation of Chemical Parameters in Aliakmon River/Northern Greece. Part I: Quality Characteristics and Nutrients? J. Environ. Sci. Health, A29(10), 2115-2126.
Voutsa, D., Manoli, E., Samara, C., Sofoniou, M., and Stratis, I., (2001) ?A study of surface water quality in Macedonia, Greece: Speciation of nitrogen and phosphorus? Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 129: 13-32.
Samara, C., Tsitouridou, R., Balafoutis, Ch., (1992) ?Chemical composition of rain in Thessaloniki, Greece in relation to meteorological conditions? Atmospheric Environment 26B (3), 359-367.
Samara, C. and Tsitouridou, R., (2000) ?Fine and coarse ionic aerosol components in relation to wet and dry deposition? Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 120, 71-88.
Nanoceramics are composed of ceramics and are classified as inorganic, heat-resistant, nonmetallic solids made of both metallic and nonmetallic compounds. Bone tissue engineering applies bioactive scaffolds, host cells and osteogenic signals for restoring damaged or diseased tissues. Composites of bioactive ceramics closely match the properties of bone. In the present
Nanoceramics are composed of ceramics and are classified as inorganic, heat-resistant, nonmetallic solids made of both metallic and nonmetallic compounds. Bone tissue engineering applies bioactive scaffolds, host cells and osteogenic signals for restoring damaged or diseased tissues. Composites of bioactive ceramics closely match the properties of bone. In the present review paper, an attempt has been made to emphasize the suitability of nanoceramics in the field of bone tissue engineering. Toxicity of these synthesized nanomaterials should be checked before their real application. Nanoceramics, in future, will surely prove to be important nanomaterials in the field of tissue engineering. Full article
Kiani, A., Rahmani, M., Manickam, S. & Tan, B. Nanoceramics: Synthesis, characterization, and applications. J. Nanomater. 2014, 2?4 (2014).
Bagchi, A., Meka, S. R., Rao, B. N. & Chatterjee, K. Perovskite ceramic nanoparticles in polymer composites for augmenting bone tissue regeneration. Nanotechnology. 25, 485101 (2014).
Sethu, S. N. et al. Nanoceramics on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in bone tissue engineering. Int.J.Biol.Macromol. 98, 67?74 (2017).
Amini, A. R., Laurencin, C. T. & Nukavarapu, S. P. Bone tissue engineering: recent advances and challenges. Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 40, 363?408 (2012).
Nanoceramics (Nanotechnology). Available at: http://what-when-how.com/nanoscience-and-nanotechnology/nanoceramics-nanotechnology/
Itoh, H., Wakisaka, Y., Ohnuma, Y. & Kuboki, Y. A new porous hydroxyapatite ceramic prepared by cold isostatic pressing and sintering synthesized flaky powder. Dent.Mater.J. 13, 25?35 (1994).
Yao, Z., Tan, S., Xia, M., Ye, Y. & Li, J. Synthesis, characterization and sintering behaviour of indialite ceramic from fly ash. Waste Manag. 29, 1090?1097 (2011).
Denry, I., Goudouri, O. M., Harless, J. & Holloway, J. A. Rapid vacuum sintering: A novel technique for fabricating fluorapatite ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. J.Biomed.Mater.Res.B Appl.Biomater. 106, 291?299 (2018).
Goodridge, R. D., Dalgarno, K. W. & Wood, D. J. Indirect selective laser sintering of an apatite-mullite glass-ceramic for potential use in bone replacement applications. Proc.Inst.Mech.Eng H. 220, 57?68 (2006).
Dinesh, K. S. et al. Formulation and biological actions of nano-bioglass ceramic particles doped with Calcarea phosphorica for bone tissue engineering. Mater.Sci.Eng C.Mater.Biol.Appl. 83, 202?209 (2018).
Rezaei, M. et al. Nano-Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramic for the Repair of Bone Defects. J.Craniofac.Surg. (2018).
Deepthi, S., Venkatesan, J., Kim, S. K., Bumgardner, J. D. & Jayakumar, R. An overview of chitin or chitosan/nano ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Int.J.Biol.Macromol. 93, 1338?1353 (2016).
Lisboa-Filho, P. N. et al. Bone repair with raloxifene and bioglass nanoceramic composite in animal experiment. Connect. Res. 59, 97?101 (2018).
Bhowmick, A. et al. Development of bone-like zirconium oxide nanoceramic modified chitosan based porous nanocomposites for biomedical application. Int.J.Biol.Macromol. 95, 348?356 (2017).
Shokrollahi, H., Salimi, F. & Doostmohammadi, A. The fabrication and characterization of barium titanate/akermanite nano-bio-ceramic with a suitable piezoelectric coefficient for bone defect recovery. J.Mech.Behav.Biomed.Mater. 74, 365?370 (2017).