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Keywords = Nigeria

  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 52-59. http://doi.org/10.31586/Epidemiology.0301.05
    184 Views 88 Downloads 1 Shares PDF Full-text (2.334 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected.
    [...] Read more.
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a commercially available qualitative immunoassay for the detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen of Mycobacteria in human urine by comparing its sensitivity and specificity in TB patients with the AFB and GeneXpert in individuals with presumptive tuberculosis cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study that consecutively enrolled 53 eligible TB adults? patients attending TB Centre, Mangu, Plateau State from February to March 2017. We applied the LAM test on urine collected as a spot and early morning sample. Diagnostic accuracy was analyzed for a microbiological TB reference standard based on Gene Xpert MTB/RIF results and for a composite reference standard including clinical data. Performance of sputum smear microscopy (AFB) was included for comparison. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 41.0?17.0 years.) The male proportion was 36(68.0%) and female was 17(32.0%). The patients with HIV-1 Co-infection were 9(23.8%). Of the 53 patients, the positive testing rate of TB using LAM test was 11 (20.8 %). The proportion of those who tested positive using Gene Xpert was 9(17.0%) and AFB was 33(62.2%), and the sensitivity and specificity were 33.3% and 93.2%, respectively. Negative and positive predictive values were 87.23% and 50.0%, diagnostic accuracy was 83.02%. Conclusion: The study showed great sensitivity of urine LAM test suggesting it could be useful as point of care diagnostic test for presumptive TB cases. Its high negative predictive value suggests a role in screening out uninfected patients; though GeneXpert had superior sensitivity, but the ease of the LAM test holds operational advantage as a screening method, however larger studies are needed to further determine diagnostic accuracy.  Full article
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    References
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    Lawn SD, Kerkhoff AD, Vogt M, Wood R. HIV-associated tuberculosis: relationship between disease severity and the sensitivity of new sputum-based and urine-based diagnostic assays. BMC Med. 2013;11:231.
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    Nakiyingi L, Moodley VM, Manabe YC, Nicol MP, Holshouser M, Armstrong DT, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014.
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    Peter JG, Theron G, Dheda K. Can point-of-care urine LAM strip testing for tuberculosis add value to clinical decision making in hospitalized HIV-infected persons? PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e54875
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2015, 2(3), 110-116. http://doi.org/10.31586/Agriculture.0203.05
    38 Views 83 Downloads PDF Full-text (388.734 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    The effect irrigation method and tillage on yield and irrigation water productivity of rice was conducted in split plot experiment with three replications during the dry seasons 2012 and 2013 in field conditions at the Lake Geriyo Irrigation scheme farms in Yola, Nigeria. 3 irrigation management: 3, 6 and 9
    [...] Read more.
    The effect irrigation method and tillage on yield and irrigation water productivity of rice was conducted in split plot experiment with three replications during the dry seasons 2012 and 2013 in field conditions at the Lake Geriyo Irrigation scheme farms in Yola, Nigeria. 3 irrigation management: 3, 6 and 9 day interval with 3 tillage practices: zero, shallow and deep soil tillage were studied. Results showed that there were significant differences in paddy yield, harvest index and irrigation water productivity. 6 days interval irrigation management was placed to one group with 3 days irrigation interval on paddy yield and harvest index; higher water productivity of 3.58 and 3.51 kg ha-1 mm-1were recorded with 6 days irrigation interval in both seasons respectively. Therefore it can be recommended that 6 day interval irrigation which had better irrigation water productivity and saved up 29% irrigation water be adopted for rice cultivation under clay loam soils of guinea savanna zone of Nigeria.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2019, 4(3), 99-104. http://doi.org/10.31586/Microbiology.0403.02
    93 Views 108 Downloads PDF Full-text (641.988 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an increased risk for Viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infections also known as Human Herpes Virus Type 4 (HHV-4) and their related diseases which frequently cause malignancy related diseases resulting to poor treatment and health outcomes. In this study, we determined
    [...] Read more.
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an increased risk for Viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infections also known as Human Herpes Virus Type 4 (HHV-4) and their related diseases which frequently cause malignancy related diseases resulting to poor treatment and health outcomes. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgM antibodies among HIV patients attending Plateau Specialist Hospital, Jos, Nigeria and to evaluate their association with age, sex as well as other demographic factors. A total of 92 HIV positive patients were enrolled and serum samples were screened for antibodies using the ELISA kit. The prevalence of EBV VCA IgM was 6/92(6.53%), and mean age of 37.48 ±1.01 years. This study has contributed to baseline data, and suggest the need for larger studies and importance of screening and treatment of EBV among HIV patients.  Full article
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