Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected.
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a commercially available qualitative immunoassay for the detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen of Mycobacteria in human urine by comparing its sensitivity and specificity in TB patients with the AFB and GeneXpert in individuals with presumptive tuberculosis cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study that consecutively enrolled 53 eligible TB adults? patients attending TB Centre, Mangu, Plateau State from February to March 2017. We applied the LAM test on urine collected as a spot and early morning sample. Diagnostic accuracy was analyzed for a microbiological TB reference standard based on Gene Xpert MTB/RIF results and for a composite reference standard including clinical data. Performance of sputum smear microscopy (AFB) was included for comparison. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 41.0?17.0 years.) The male proportion was 36(68.0%) and female was 17(32.0%). The patients with HIV-1 Co-infection were 9(23.8%). Of the 53 patients, the positive testing rate of TB using LAM test was 11 (20.8 %). The proportion of those who tested positive using Gene Xpert was 9(17.0%) and AFB was 33(62.2%), and the sensitivity and specificity were 33.3% and 93.2%, respectively. Negative and positive predictive values were 87.23% and 50.0%, diagnostic accuracy was 83.02%. Conclusion: The study showed great sensitivity of urine LAM test suggesting it could be useful as point of care diagnostic test for presumptive TB cases. Its high negative predictive value suggests a role in screening out uninfected patients; though GeneXpert had superior sensitivity, but the ease of the LAM test holds operational advantage as a screening method, however larger studies are needed to further determine diagnostic accuracy. Full article
Steingart KR, Flores LL, Dendukuri N, Schiller I, Laal S, Ramsay A et al. Commercial serological tests for the diagnosis of active pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med, 2011; 8: e1001062.
Pai NP, Pai M. Point-of-care diagnostics for HIV and tuberculosis: landscape, pipeline, and unmet needs. Discov Med, 2012; 13: 35?45.
Tessema TA, Bjune G, Assefa G, Svenson S, Hamasur B, et al. Clinical and radiological features in relation to urinary excretion of lipoarabinomannan in Ethiopian tuberculosis patients. Scand. J Infect Dis. 2002; 34: 167?171
Bjerrum S, Kenu E, Lartey M, Newman JM, Addo KK, Andersen BA et al. Diagnostic accuracy of the rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in Ghana?findings from the DETECT HIV-TB study. BMC Infect Dis. 2015; 15:407
Lawn SD, Wood R. Tuberculosis in antiretroviral treatment services in resource-limited settings: addressing the challenges of screening and diagnosis. J Infect Dis. 2011; 204 Suppl 4:S1159?67.
Colebunders R, Bastian I: A review of the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2000; 4(2):97-107.
Lawn SD, Brooks SV, Kranzer K, Nicol MP, Whitelaw A, Vogt M, et al. Screening for HIV-associated tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance before antiretroviral therapy using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay: a prospective study. PLoS Med. 2011; 8(7):e1001067
Wallis RS, Kim P, Cole S, Hanna D, Andrade BB, Maeurer M, et al. Tuberculosis biomarkers discovery: developments, needs, and challenges. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013; 13(4):362?72.
Boehme C, Molokova E, Minja F, Geis S, Loscher T, Maboko L.et al. Detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan with an antigen-capture ELISA in unprocessed urine of Tanzanian patients with suspected tuberculosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005; 99(12):893-900
Alere. Alere Determine TB LAM Ag rapid test product listing. 2011. www.alerehiv.com/hiv-comorbidities/features
Peter JG, Theron G, van Zyl-Smit R, Haripersad A, Mottay L, Kraus S et al. Diagnostic accuracy of a urine LAM strip-test for TB detection in HIV-infected hospitalized patients. Eur Respir J. 2012; 5:1211-20.
Shrestha D, Bhattacharya SK, Lekhak B, Kumarc BCR. Evaluation of different staining techniques for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Nepal Health Res. 2005; 23 (2): 111-13.
Vasanthakumari R, Jagannath K, Rajasekaran S. A cold staining method for acid-fast bacilli. Bull World Health Organ. 1986; 64:741?743.
Dowdy DW, Chaisson RE, Moulton LH, Dorman SE. The potential impact of enhanced diagnostic techniques for tuberculosis driven by HIV: a mathematical model. AIDS. 2006;20(5):751?62.
Lawn SD, Kerkhoff AD, Vogt M, Wood R. HIV-associated tuberculosis: relationship between disease severity and the sensitivity of new sputum-based and urine-based diagnostic assays. BMC Med. 2013;11:231.
Nakiyingi L, Moodley VM, Manabe YC, Nicol MP, Holshouser M, Armstrong DT, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014.
Peter JG, Theron G, Dheda K. Can point-of-care urine LAM strip testing for tuberculosis add value to clinical decision making in hospitalized HIV-infected persons? PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e54875
Shah M, Ssengooba W, Armstrong D, Nakiyingi L, Holshouser M, Ellner JJ, et al. Comparative performance of urinary lipoarabinomannan assays and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2014; 28(9):1307?14.
The effect irrigation method and tillage on yield and irrigation water productivity of rice was conducted in split plot experiment with three replications during the dry seasons 2012 and 2013 in field conditions at the Lake Geriyo Irrigation scheme farms in Yola, Nigeria. 3 irrigation management: 3, 6 and 9
The effect irrigation method and tillage on yield and irrigation water productivity of rice was conducted in split plot experiment with three replications during the dry seasons 2012 and 2013 in field conditions at the Lake Geriyo Irrigation scheme farms in Yola, Nigeria. 3 irrigation management: 3, 6 and 9 day interval with 3 tillage practices: zero, shallow and deep soil tillage were studied. Results showed that there were significant differences in paddy yield, harvest index and irrigation water productivity. 6 days interval irrigation management was placed to one group with 3 days irrigation interval on paddy yield and harvest index; higher water productivity of 3.58 and 3.51 kg ha-1 mm-1were recorded with 6 days irrigation interval in both seasons respectively. Therefore it can be recommended that 6 day interval irrigation which had better irrigation water productivity and saved up 29% irrigation water be adopted for rice cultivation under clay loam soils of guinea savanna zone of Nigeria. Full article
Adebayo AA. (1999). Climate I. Sunshine, temperature, Evaporation and relative Humidity. In Adebayo AA, Tukur AL, eds. Adamawa state in maps, Paraclete Publishers and Department of Geography, Federal University of Technology, Yola ? Nigeria Pp. 3-5.
Akande T. (2002). An overview of the Nigerian rice economy: The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER) Ibadan.
Akinbile CO, Sangodoyin AY. (2011). Crop Water Use Responses of Upland Rice to Differential Water Distribution under Sprinkler Irrigation System. Pacific Journal of Science and Technology 12(1), 516-526.
Alam MK, Salim N. (2013). Changes in soil physical properties and crop productivity as influenced by different tillage depths and cropping patterns. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture Resources 38(2), 289-299.
Ali-Abou Khalifa AB. (2010). response of some rice varieties to nitrogen fertilizer application under different irrigation intervals. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 1(1), 56-64.
Amiri E, Khandan M, Bozargi HR, Sadeghi SM, Rezaei M. (2009). Responses of rice varieties to water limit conditions in North Iran. World, Applied Sciences Journal 6(9), 1190- 1192.
Barker R, Dawe D, Tuong TP, Bhuiyan SI, Guerra LC. (2000). The outlook for water resources in the year 2020: Challenges for research on water management in rice production. International Rice Commission Newsletter 49, 7-21.
Belder P, Bournman BAM, Cabangon R, Quilang GEJP, Li Y, Spiertz JHJ, Tuong TP. (2004). Effect of water ? Saving Irrigation on rice yield and water use in tropical low land conditions in Asian, Agricultural Water Management 65(3), 193-210
Bray RH, Kurtz LT. (1945). Determination of Total, Organic and Available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science Society of American, Modeson 59, 45-49.
Cassel DK. (1982). Tillage effects on soil bulk density and mechanical impedance. In Unger PW, Van Doren DM, Eds. predicting tillage effects on soil physical properties and processes. ASA-SSSA, Madison, USA, PP. 45-67.
Childs EC, Bybordi W. (1969).The vertical movement of water in a stratified porous material: 1. Infiltration, Water Resources Research 5(2), 446-459, doi: 10.1029/WR005i002p004
Clemmens AJ, Allen RG, Burt CM. (2008). Technical concepts related to conservation of irrigation and rainwater in agricultural systems. Water Resources Research, 44, W00E03, 15 p.
CropStat (2007). CropStat for Windows, version 7.2. International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Dahmardeh K, Rad MRP, Rad MRN, Hadizadeh M. (2015). Effects of potassium rates and irrigation regimes on yield of forage sorghum in arid regions. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research 6(4), 207-212
Gajri PR, Gill KS, Singh R, Gill BS. (1999). Effect of pre- planting tillage on crop yields and weed biomass in a rice- wheat system on a sandy loam soil in Punjab. Soil and Tillage Research 52, 83-89
Hameed KA, Jaber FA, Mosa AJ. (2013). Irrigation Water Use Efficiency for Rice Production in Southern Iraq under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Management. Taiwan Water Conservancy 61(4), 86-93
Hobbs PR. (2007). Conservation agriculture: what is it and why is it important for future sustainable food production. Journal of Agricultural Science 145, 127?137.
IRRI (1989). IRRI towards 2000 and beyond. IRRI Manila Philippines.
Mathew G, Johnkutty I. (2003). Effect of Minimum Tillage System on Productivity of Rice. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 41, 50-51
Olaleye AO, Osiname OA, Cofie O. (2004). ?Soil and Water Management for Rice Production in Nigeria?. Proceedings of the West Africa International Conference on Hunger without Frontiers. West African Society for Agricultural Engineering (WASAE), 20-24 September, 2004. Kumasi, Ghana. 259-265
Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR. (1986). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Soil Science Society of American Agronomy Monograph No.9, 2nd Edition, pp. 325-340.
Ryan J, George E, Abdul R. (2001). Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual. 2nd ed., International Centre for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) and National Agricultural Research Centre, Aleppo, Syria. X+172pp
Singh A, Kumar R, Kang JS. (2014). Tillage System, Crop Residues and Nitrogen to Improve the Productivity of Direct Seeded Rice and Transplanted Rice. Current Agriculture Research Journal 2(1), 14-29
Tantawi BA, Ghanem SA, (2001). Water use efficiency in rice culture. Agricultural Research Center, Giza (Egypt). CIHM-Optin Mediterraneennes, 40, 39-45.
Timon F. (2014). Effect of Regulated Irrigation and Tillage Practices Rice Growth and Yield Parameters in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Tech Thesis, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria. pp 52
Tuong TP, Bouman BAM. (2003). Rice production in water- scarce environments. Proceedings of the Water Productivity Workshop, 12?14 November 2001. International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka. Toung TP, Bounman BAM, Martimer M. 2005. More Rice, Less Water: Integrated Approaches for Increasing Water Productivity in Irrigated Rice ?Based Systems in Asia. Plant Production Science 5 (3), 229-239.
Trimmer WL. (1994). Estimating Water flow Rates: Oregon State University Extension Fact Sheet EC 1369.
Usman BH. (2005). The soils Adamawa State, North eastern Nigeria. In Igwe EC, Mshelia, SI, Jada MY. Eds. Agriculture in Adamawa state, Paraclete publishers Yola, Nigeria.
WARDA (2008). Growing Lowland Rice: a production handbook, Africa Rice Center (WARDA) Cotonou, Benin Republic p.42
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an increased risk for Viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infections also known as Human Herpes Virus Type 4 (HHV-4) and their related diseases which frequently cause malignancy related diseases resulting to poor treatment and health outcomes. In this study, we determined
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an increased risk for Viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infections also known as Human Herpes Virus Type 4 (HHV-4) and their related diseases which frequently cause malignancy related diseases resulting to poor treatment and health outcomes. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgM antibodies among HIV patients attending Plateau Specialist Hospital, Jos, Nigeria and to evaluate their association with age, sex as well as other demographic factors. A total of 92 HIV positive patients were enrolled and serum samples were screened for antibodies using the ELISA kit. The prevalence of EBV VCA IgM was 6/92(6.53%), and mean age of 37.48 ±1.01 years. This study has contributed to baseline data, and suggest the need for larger studies and importance of screening and treatment of EBV among HIV patients. Full article
Balfour HHJr, Sifakis F, Sliman JA, Knight JA, Schmeling DO, Thomas W. Age-specific prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection among individuals aged 6–19 years in the United States and factors affecting its acquisition. J Infect Dis, 2013; 208: 1286–1293
Rickinson AB, Kieff E. Epstein-Barr virus. In: Virology (eds. DM Knipe, PM Howly) 5th ed., Vol. 2, Wolters Kluwer /Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2006; pp. 2655-2700.
Tsai MH, Hsu CY, Yen MH, Huang YC, Lin SJ, Lin TY et al. Epstein-Barr virus-associated infectious mononucleosis and risk factor analysis for complications in hospitalized children. J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2005; 38: 255–261
Kimura H, Hoshino Y, Kanegane H, Tsuge I, Okamura T, Kawa K, Morishima T. Clinical and virologic characteristics of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. Blood, 2001; 98: 280–286
Chen CJ, Huang YC, Jaing TH, Yang CP., Chang LY, Lin TY et al. Hemophagocytic syndrome: a review of 18 pediatric cases. J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2004; 37: 157–163
Carbone A, Cesarman E, Spina M, Gloghini A, Schulz TF. HIV-associated lymphomas and gamma-herpesviruses. Virus Research, 2009; 143, 209-221.
Thorley-Lawson, D.A., Gross, A. Persistence of the Epstein-Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med, 2004; 350: 1328–1337.
Bertrand AK, Birmann MB, Chang ET, Spiegelman D, Aster J C, Laden F et al. A prospective study of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood, 116 2010; 3547-3553
Kangro HO, Osman HK, Lau YL, Heath RB, Yeung CY, Ng MH. Seroprevalence of antibodies to human herpesviruses in England and Hong Kong. J Med Virol, 1994; 43: 91–96.
Dowd JB, Palermo T, Brite J, McDade TW, Aiello A. Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in U.S. children ages 6–19, 2003–2010. PLoS One, 2013; 8: e64921.
Bishop GH, Adegoke OO. Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr Virus IgM Antibodies among HIV-Patients and Apparently Healthy Blood Donors Attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Shika-Zaria, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge, 2016; 4(5): 105-111
Kolawole OE, Kola OJ, Elukunbi AH. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus IgM in HIV infected individuals in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. British Journal of Virology, 2017; 3(6): 177-182.
Ibrahim MH, Faten R, Abdel Ghaffar ARF, El Shaer ER, Madian AM. Prevalence of Epstein-Barr Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Infections among Chronic HCV PatientsAttending Kafer El Shiekh Liver and Heart Institute, Egypt. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research (JAMMR), 2018; 26(8): 1-8,
Chen CY, Huang KYA, Shen J-H, Tsao K-C, Huang Y-C. A Large-Scale Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Taiwan. PLoS ONE, 2015; 10(1): e0115836.
Higgins CD, Swerdlow AJ, Macsween KF, Harrison N, Williams H, Crawford A et al. Study of risk factors for acquisition of Epstein-Barr virus and its subtypes. J Infect Dis. 2007; 195(4):474-82.
Crawford DH, Swerdlow AJ, Higgins C, McAulay K, Harrison N, Williams H et al. Sexual history and Epstein-Barr virus infection. Infect. Dis. 2002; 186:731–736.
Jenson, H. B. Epstein-Barr virus. Pediatr Rev, 2011; 32: 375–383.
Arotiba JT, Adebola AR, Iliyasu Z, Babashan M, Ladipo MMA, Osude OD et al. Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS infection in Nigerian patients. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research, 2005; 7, 176-181
Chakraborty N, Bhattacharyya S, de Mukherjee CA, Bhattacharya D, Santra S, Chakrabarti. S et al. Incidence of multiple herpesvirus Infection in HIV seropositive patients, a big concern for Eastern Indian scenario. Virology Journal, 2010; 7, 147: 1-7
Abdollahi A, Shoar S, Rasoulinejad M, Sheikhbahaei. S Sero-prevalence of Epstein - Barr virus among HIV positive patients moreover and its association with CD4 positive lymphocyte count. Acta Medica Iranica, 2014; 52(12), 916-921
Adjei AA, Armah HB, Gbagbo F, Boamah I, Adu-Gyamfi C, Asare I. Seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV, and EBV among the general population in Ghana, West Africa. BMC Infect Dis, 2008; 8: 111.
Wagner HJ, Hornef M, Teichert HM, Kirchner H. Sex difference in the serostatus of adults to the Epstein-Barr virus. Immunobiology, 1994; 190: 424-429
Balfour HHJr, Odumade OA, Schmeling DO, Knight JA, Vezina HE, Hogquist KA et al. Behavioral, virologic, and immunologic factors associated with acquisition and severity of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection in university students. J Infect Dis, 2013; 207: 80–88.