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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 1-9. http://doi.org/10.31586/Biology.0301.01
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    Abstract
    Animals usually use photoperiod as an important environmental cue to time the year. In terms of the winter immunocompetence enhancement hypothesis, animals in the non-tropical zone would actively enhance their immune function to decrease the negative influence of stressors such as low temperature and food shortage in winter. In the
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    Animals usually use photoperiod as an important environmental cue to time the year. In terms of the winter immunocompetence enhancement hypothesis, animals in the non-tropical zone would actively enhance their immune function to decrease the negative influence of stressors such as low temperature and food shortage in winter. In the present study, we mimicked the transition from summer to winter by decreasing photoperiod gradually and examined the variations of immune repsonses in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to test this hypothesis. Twenty two female adult hamsters were randomly divided into the control (12h light: 12h dark, Control, n=11) and the gradually decreasing photoperiod group (Experiment, n=11). In the experiment group, day length was decreased from 12 h: 12 h light-dark cycle to 8 h: 16 h light-dark cycle at the pace of half an hour per week. We found that gradually decreasing photoperiod had no effect on body composition (wet carcass mass, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and total body fat mass) and the masses of the organs detected such as brain, heart, liver and so on in hamsters. Similarly, immunological parameters including immune organs (thymus and spleen), white blood cells and serum bacteria killing capacity indicative of innate immunity were also not influenced by gradually decreasing photoperiod, which did not support the winter immunocompetence enhancement hypothesis. However, gradually decreasing photoperiod increased phytohaemagglutinin response post-24h of PHA challenge, which supported this hypothesis. There was no correlation between cellular, innate immunity and body fat mass, suggesting that body fat was not the reasons of the changes of cellular immunity. In summary, distinct components of immune system respond to gradually decreasing photoperiod differently in Siberian hamsters.  Full article
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    References
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    Nelson, R.J. 2004. Seasonal immune function and sickness responses. Trends Immunol. 25, 187-192.
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    Dobrowolska, A., Adamczewska-Andrzejewska, K.A., 1991. Seasonal and long term changes in serum gamma globulin levels in comparing the physiology and population density of the common vole, Microtus arvalis Pall.1779. J. Interdis. Cycle Res, 22, 1-19.
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    Sinclair, J.A., Lochmiller, R.L., 2000. The winter immunoenhancement hypothesis: associations among immunity, density, and survival in Prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) populations. Can. J. Zool. 78, 254-264.
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    Zhang, Z.Q., Wang, D.H., 2006. Seasonal changes in immune function, body fat mass and organ mass in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Acta, Theriol. Sin. 26,338-345. (In Chinese with English summary).
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    Mann DR, Akinbami MA, Gould KG, Ansari AA. 2000. Seasonal variations in cytokine expression and cell-mediated immunity in male rhesus monkeys. Cell Immunol 200: 105-115.
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    Brainard, G.C., Knobler, R.I., Podolin, P.L., Lavasa, M., Lubin, F.D., 1987. Neuroimmunology: modulation of the hamster immune system by photoperiod. Life Sci. 40, 1319-1326.
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    Drazen, D.L., Jasnow, A.M., Nelson, R.J., Demas, G.E.. 2002. Exposure to short days, but not short-term melatonin, enhances humoral immunity of male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) J. Pineal Res. 33, 118-124.
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    Bilbo, S.D., Dhabhar, F.S., Viswanathan, K., Saul, A., Yellon, S.M., Nelson,R.J., 2002. Short day lengths augment stress-induced leukocyte trafficking and stress-induced enhancement of skin immune function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 4067- 4072.
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    Drazen, D.L., Kriegsfeld, L.J., Schneider, J.E., Nelson, R.J., 2000. Leptin, but not immune function, is linked to reproductive responsiveness to photoperiod. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 278, R1401-R1407.
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    Tieleman BI, Williams JB, Ricklefs RE, Klasing KC, (2005). Constitutive innate immunity is a component of the pace-of-life syndrome in tropical birds. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 272, 1715-1720.
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    Demas GE, Zysling DA, Beechler BR, Muehlenbein MP, French SS. (2011). Beyond phytohaemagglutinin: assessing vertebrate immune function across ecological contexts. J Anim. Ecol. 80, 710-730.
    [17]
    Xu DL, Hu XK. 2017. Photoperiod and temperature differently affect immune function in striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). Comp. Physiol. Part A 204: 211-218.
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    Bellocq, J.G., Krasnov, B.R., Khokhlova, I.S., Pinshow, B., 2006. Temporal dynamics of a T-cell mediated immune response in desert rodents. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 145, 554-559.
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    Ahima R.S., J.S. Flier., 2000. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 11, 327-332.
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    Fantuzzi, G., 2005. Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 115, 911-919.
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    Schäffler A, Schölmerich J, Salzberger B (2007). Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs and CTRPs. Trends Immunol.28, 393-99.
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    Dong WH, Hou XX, Zhou YL, Zhang YX, Lang BJ, Xue XP. (1998). Studies on population dynamics and prediction of Phodopus sungorus. Acta Agrest Sinica.. 6(3):207-211. (In Chinese with English abstract)
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    Demas GE. (2002) Splenic denervation blocks leptin induced enhancement of humoral immunity in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Neuroendocrinology 76, 178-184.
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    Xu DL, Hu XK, Tian YF (2017). Effect of temperature and food restriction on immune function in striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis). J Exp. Biol. doi:10.1242/jeb.153601.
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    Gatien ML, Hotchkiss AK, Dhabhar FS, Nelson RJ. 2005. Skeleton photoperiods alter delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and reproductive function of siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). J Neuroendocri.17: 733–739.
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    Demas G.E., Nelson R.J. 2003. Lack of immunological responsiveness to photoperiod in a tropical rodent, Peromyscus aztecus hylocetes. J Comp. Physiol. B 173: 171–176.
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    Yellon, S.M., 2007. Melatonin mediates photoperiod control of endocrine adaptationsand humoral immunity in male Siberian hamsters. J. Pineal Res. 43, 109-114.
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    Weil, Z.M., Borniger, J.C., Cisse, Y.M., Salloum, B.A., Nelson, R.J., 2015. Neuroendocrine control of photoperiodic changes in immune function. Front. Neuroendocr. 37,108-118.
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    Lord, G.M., Matarese, G., Howard, J.K., Baker, R.J., Bloom, S.R., Lechler, R.I., 1998. Leptin modulates the T-cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immunosuppression. Nature 394, 897-901.
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    Demas, G.E., Drazen, D.L., Nelson, R.J., 2003. Reductions in total body fat decrease humoral immunity. Proc. R. Soc. B 270, 905-911.
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    Flier, J.S., 1998. Lowered leptin slims immune response. Nat. Med. 4, 1124-1125.
  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 18-32. http://doi.org/10.31586/RemoteSensing.0301.04
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    Abstract
    Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) is unique in East Africa that provides mixed land use activities for the community. The main land uses in LGCA are livestock keeping, wildlife conservation, small scale agriculture, tourism and hunting of wild animals. For decades, Maasai pastoralists coexisted with LGCA but restricted to hunt,
    [...] Read more.
    Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) is unique in East Africa that provides mixed land use activities for the community. The main land uses in LGCA are livestock keeping, wildlife conservation, small scale agriculture, tourism and hunting of wild animals. For decades, Maasai pastoralists coexisted with LGCA but restricted to hunt, set snares and conducting large scale farming. From the year 2000 expansion of agricultural activities have been noted which has escalated the decline of wildlife. I this study the land use/cover change occurred in LGCA for the period of 20 years have been determined and assessed. Supervised classification method was used whereby six classes namely forest, bare land, sand, water, grass land and agriculture were categorized. The results show that from 1996 to 2016 there is a major land cover change on forest, agriculture, bare land, grassland, water bodies and sand by 19.63%, 8.74%, 15.32%, 50.08%, 4.51 %and 1.72%, respectively. Specifically, forest cover is decreasing at 1467.81 ha per year while agriculture is increasing at the rate of 1,467 ha per year. The study concluded that clearing of forest and large scale agriculture has destroyed vegetation cover threatening the existence of wildlife which to a great extent requires immediate measures to counterbalance this effect.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1 of 8

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    Niboye, E, P.(2010) Vegetation Cover Changes in Ngorongoro Conservation Area from 1975 to 2000; The Open Geography Journal, 2010, 3, 15-27
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    Nelson, F. 2003. Community-based Tourism in Northern Tanzania: Increasing Opportunities, Escalating Conflicts and an Uncertain Future.
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    TNRF (2010).Integrating Pastoralist Livelihoods and Wildlife Conservation? Options for Land Use and Conflict Resolution in Loliondo Division, Ngorongoro District -Tanzania.
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    DeFries, R., A. J. Hansen, A. C. Newton, M. Hansen, and J. Townshend. 2005. Isolation of protected areas in tropical forests over the last twenty years. Ecological Applications 15:19–26
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    Masengeri R. 2012. Framing of Resource use Conflicts in Loliondo Game Controled Area, Tanzania. Unpublished MSc. Report.
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    Herlocker D. 1999. Rangeland resources in East Africa and their ecology and development. Nairobi: GTZ report 1999.
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    Opeyemi Z. A., 2006. Change Detection in Land Use and Land Cover Using Remote ensing Data and GIS. A Case Study of Ilorin and its Environs in Kwara State Nigeria. MSc. Report 44 pages https://www.geospatialworld.net/wp-content/.../04/OpeyemiZubair_ThesisDOC.doc
  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 33-51. http://doi.org/10.31586/Geosciences.0301.05
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    Abstract
    The magnetotelluric method has been used in this work to compare the nature of the sedimentary-metamorphic contacts of the Douala and Kribi-Campo sub-basins in Cameroon. The results show that the sedimentary-metamorphic contact zones for the two sub-basins, marked by a subsidence of the low resistivity materials on the sedimentary formations
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    The magnetotelluric method has been used in this work to compare the nature of the sedimentary-metamorphic contacts of the Douala and Kribi-Campo sub-basins in Cameroon. The results show that the sedimentary-metamorphic contact zones for the two sub-basins, marked by a subsidence of the low resistivity materials on the sedimentary formations and uplift of the high resistivity materials characterized by intrusive bodies of higher values of resistivity on the metamorphic formations, are structurally similar,. However, the very low values of resistivity of rocks in the Douala sub-basin is suggestive of high porosity, permeability and high level of saline ions dissociation leading to high conductivity. These rocks should be of unconsolidated sediments for the sedimentary formation and gneiss for the metamorphic formation. On the contrary, the very high values of resistivity for rocks in the Kribi-Campo sub-basin indicate the absence of free mobile electrons and ions and low porosity, permeability and non-conductivity. The sedimentary formation of this sub-basin should be composed of limestone and conglomerates rocks with some gneissic and unconsolidated granitic materials. The rocks in the metamorphic formation should be completely granitic in nature. The shallow depth of penetration of only 4 km of telluric current in the Douala sub-basin is enough evidence that the tectonic events responsible for the emplacement of this contact zone were limited to the earth crust. On the other hand, in the Kribi-Campo sub-basin the tectonic events should have originated from within the earth mantle as the depth of penetration of telluric current attains 150 km.  Full article
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    Figure 1 of 8

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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 52-59. http://doi.org/10.31586/Epidemiology.0301.05
    56 Views 29 Downloads 1 Shares PDF Full-text (2.334 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected.
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    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a commercially available qualitative immunoassay for the detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen of Mycobacteria in human urine by comparing its sensitivity and specificity in TB patients with the AFB and GeneXpert in individuals with presumptive tuberculosis cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study that consecutively enrolled 53 eligible TB adults’ patients attending TB Centre, Mangu, Plateau State from February to March 2017. We applied the LAM test on urine collected as a spot and early morning sample. Diagnostic accuracy was analyzed for a microbiological TB reference standard based on Gene Xpert MTB/RIF results and for a composite reference standard including clinical data. Performance of sputum smear microscopy (AFB) was included for comparison. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 41.0±17.0 years.) The male proportion was 36(68.0%) and female was 17(32.0%). The patients with HIV-1 Co-infection were 9(23.8%). Of the 53 patients, the positive testing rate of TB using LAM test was 11 (20.8 %). The proportion of those who tested positive using Gene Xpert was 9(17.0%) and AFB was 33(62.2%), and the sensitivity and specificity were 33.3% and 93.2%, respectively. Negative and positive predictive values were 87.23% and 50.0%, diagnostic accuracy was 83.02%. Conclusion: The study showed great sensitivity of urine LAM test suggesting it could be useful as point of care diagnostic test for presumptive TB cases. Its high negative predictive value suggests a role in screening out uninfected patients; though GeneXpert had superior sensitivity, but the ease of the LAM test holds operational advantage as a screening method, however larger studies are needed to further determine diagnostic accuracy.  Full article
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    Figure 1 of 1

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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 10-17. http://doi.org/10.31586/Statistics.0301.02
    16 Views 22 Downloads PDF Full-text (1.300 MB) PDF Full-text (1.495 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    When faced with unbalanced data, it is often necessary to estimate the necessary missing values before the application of the analysis of variance technique. Previous studies have shown that different designs require different missing value estimators. With the introduction of some relatively new statistical designs, it has become expedient to
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    When faced with unbalanced data, it is often necessary to estimate the necessary missing values before the application of the analysis of variance technique. Previous studies have shown that different designs require different missing value estimators. With the introduction of some relatively new statistical designs, it has become expedient to derive missing value estimators for such designs. In this study, least squares estimators of missing values in a three-factor nested-factorial design are derived. Properties of the estimators are equally determined. A numerical example is given to show the application of the theoretical results obtained in this paper. Our empirical results establish the appropriateness of the missing value estimation method presented in this study.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 60-68. http://doi.org/10.31586/Cancer.0302.01
    32 Views 12 Downloads 3 Shares PDF Full-text (3.365 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab in combination with radiochemotherapy as the primary treatment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma from September 2012 to December 2016. 188 newly diagnosed patients with stage III–IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma
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    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab in combination with radiochemotherapy as the primary treatment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma from September 2012 to December 2016. 188 newly diagnosed patients with stage III–IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma were treated with at least 1-2 cycles of chemotherapy concurrently with planned IMRT. 88 patients received nimotuzumab 200 mg/week. Acute and late radiation-related toxicities were graded according to the Acute and Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Results: After 3 months of treatment, the complete response rates of nasopharyngeal tumors in the study group and the control group were 78.4% and 65.5%, respectively (?2=4.070, P=0.044). The total complete response rates of cervical lymph nodes in the study group and the control group were 80.7% and 67.6% respectively (?2=4.022, P=0.045).The median cycle for nimotuzumab addition was 6.3 weeks. With a median follow-up of 36.3 months (range, 12–72 months), the estimated 3-year progression failure-free survival and overall survival rates for the study group and the control group were 85.24% vs 81.97% and 96.67% vs 90.0%, respectively. The 3-year local recurrence-free survival rates for the study group and the control group were 96.67% vs 83.60%, respectively (P=0.047). Grade 3 radiation-induced mucositis accounted for 36.4% of treated patients. No skin rash and infusion reaction were observed, distinctly from what is reported in control patients. Conclusion: Nimotuzumab plus chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma showed promising outcomes in terms of locoregional control, without increasing the incidence of radiation-related toxicities for patients.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 69-74. http://doi.org/10.31586/Physiology.0302.02
    47 Views 7 Downloads 3 Shares PDF Full-text (2.323 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Heat stress can affect reproduction potential as an environmental factor. This Study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary extract on spermatogenesis and sexual hormones of laboratory mice under heat stress. 50 male mature mice were examined in five groups including a control group and four experimental groups
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    Heat stress can affect reproduction potential as an environmental factor. This Study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary extract on spermatogenesis and sexual hormones of laboratory mice under heat stress. 50 male mature mice were examined in five groups including a control group and four experimental groups [0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of rosemary extract]. Samples were kept under heat stress four hours a day and received the extract doses for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, the amount of testosterone, LH, and FSH hormones plus the number of spermatogenic cells were measured. Obtained data were analyzed using the SPSS program. Heat stress in zero doses reduced testosterone, LH, and FSH significantly whereas rosemary extract increased testosterone and LH in 200 and 400 doses and FSH in 100,200, and 400 doses. Primary spermatocytes were decreased in zero doses significantly but increased significantly in other experimental groups [p<0.05]. In general, Heat stress reduces male sex hormones and spermatogenic cells but rosemary extract compensated this reduction dose-dependently and improved sexual potential under heat stress.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1 of 4

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  • Open Access Mini Review
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 75-81. http://doi.org/10.31586/Nursing.0302.03
    31 Views 19 Downloads PDF Full-text (2.583 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Genotype and lifestyle factors have been implicated as the causes of non-communicable diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic respiratory disease. Lifestyle factors constitute physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake and dietary habits. These factors alongside genetic factors have been studied over the past years on their relationships with non-communicable
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    Genotype and lifestyle factors have been implicated as the causes of non-communicable diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic respiratory disease. Lifestyle factors constitute physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake and dietary habits. These factors alongside genetic factors have been studied over the past years on their relationships with non-communicable diseases. This review examined and compared the strengths of the two factors, lifestyle and genotype, in causing non-communicable diseases. A search was done online, predominantly with PubMed, to identify articles that contained the keywords, lifestyle, diet, exercise, genotype, gene, non-communicable diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes. For diabetes, the results of this review showed that management of lifestyle factors can be used to prevent type 2 diabetes among genetically predisposed persons. Cancers studies have suggested that a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower cancer risk for both genetically susceptible people and non-susceptible individuals. Similar findings were gotten for cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases. The results suggest a strong impact of lifestyle-related factors as a cause of non-communicable diseases though genetic factors cannot be underestimated. With good management of lifestyle factors, non-communicable diseases can be prevented and the risks reduced even among genetically high-risk individuals.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 82-89. http://doi.org/10.31586/AnalyticalChemistry.0302.04
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    Abstract
    In this research, a new nano graphene oxide based solid phase extraction followed by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction was applied as simple, rapid and sensitive determination of trace amounts of Propranolol(PRO) in urine samples with HPLC-UVD. Several factors influencing the extraction of PRO, such as pH, adsorbent amounts, extraction time, organic
    [...] Read more.
    In this research, a new nano graphene oxide based solid phase extraction followed by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction was applied as simple, rapid and sensitive determination of trace amounts of Propranolol(PRO) in urine samples with HPLC-UVD. Several factors influencing the extraction of PRO, such as pH, adsorbent amounts, extraction time, organic solvent type and the composition of solvent and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under optimum condition, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the proposed method were 2ng/mL?1 and 6.6ng/mL, respectively. Good linear behaviour over the investigated concentration ranges (2-2000ng/mL-1) and good correlation coefficient of 0.9901(r2) were obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) based on three determinations at 2, 20, 200ng/ml-1 levels of PRO was less than 9.7 %. The findings of the present study may provide clinical and diagnostic laboratories.  Full article
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